American National Homeschooling Dual Skills Diploma in English. Uluslararası Ortaokul ve Lise Diploma ve Eğitim Akreditasyon Programı

## American National Homeschooling Dual Skills Diploma in English

### Uluslararası Çift Diploma ve Eğitim Akreditasyon Programı

American National Homeschooling ve American National ELT arasındaki antlaşmaya göre, öğrencilerimiz, Türk eğitim müfredatına eş olarak alacakları Amerikan eğitim müfredatıyla Amerika Birleşik Devletleri açık öğretim orta okulu / lisesi diploması alacaklardır. Bu eğitim programı öğrencilerimize sunulan bir ayrıcalıktır. Homeschooling programına katılan öğrenciler, uyguladıkları projeleri ve öğrendikleri farklı metotları hayatlarının her alanına taşıma fırsatı bulurlar ve farklı kazanımlar elde ederler. American National Homeschooling, öğrencilerimize hayat boyu öğrenme yetisini kazandıran eşsiz bir fırsattır.

### Dünya Standartlarında Uluslararası Geçerli Diploma Programı

Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’nin Ortaokul ve Lise düzeyinde en popüler eğitim sistemleri arasında gösterilen Home Schooling; Fransa, İngiltere, Kanada ve Yeni Zelanda’dan sonra şimdi de Türkiye’de..! Öyle görünüyor ki Home Schooling yakın geleceğin yeni eğitim sistemi olacak. Bu eğitim sistemi içeriside yer alan, alanında uzman branş öğretmenleri ve eğitim koçları ile birlikte öğrencilerimiz “Yaşam Boyu Öğrenme” metoduyla tanışacaklar ve sahip oldukları enerjiyi, yaratıcılık ve hayal gücünü kullanma alanlarına kanalize edeceklerdir. Tüm bunların yanı sıra öğrencilerimiz Amerika, İngiltere ve birçok Avrupa ülkesinde geçerli NSBA diplomasının ayrıcalığını yaşayacak ve çift diploma sahibi olmanın avantajlarını kullanacaklardır.

### Hakkımızda

İlkokul, Ortaokul, Lise seviyelerinde ders vermekte olan öğretmenlerimiz Matematik, Fen Bilgisi derslerini Türkçe ve İngilizce vermektedirler. Derslerin hayatın bir parçası olarak anlatıldığıldında öğrenmenin çok kolay olduğunu gözlemlemekteyiz. Günlük hayatımızda karşılaştığımız olaylardan örneklerle ders anlatmaktayız. her alanda çıkmaktadır. Bu sistemimizde amacımız her öğrencimizin öğrenebileceğini anlatmaktır. Öğrencilerimiz Amerikadan Fark dersleri almaktadırlar. Görecekleri dersler Matematik ve Fen Bilgisi’dir. Derslerin daha iyi anlaşılması için İngilizce dersleride sistemimizde dahil edilmiştir.

### Neden Homeschool?

UK Homeschool öğrencileri lise eğitimleri sonunda İngiltere, Amerika, Avrupa ülkelerindeki üniversitelere sınavsız başvuru hakkına sahip olurlar. 12. sınıf sonunda uluslararası geçerliliği olan UK Homeschool diploması International Independent Schools Authoritiy (IISA) tarafından verilir ve UK Accreditation tarafından onaylıdır. Bu program esnek bir eğitim sistemine sahip olduğu için mevcut ulusal ders programı ile beraber tamamlanması ve yürütülmesi kolaydır. Yıl içinde yapılan çeşitli Başarı Testleri ile öğrencilerin gelişimini takip etmenizi sağlar. UK Homeschool programı tamamen online olarak hazırlanmıştır. Bunun yanı sıra ders müfredatını kaynak yayınlarla destekler. Her öğrenciye bir danışman atanır. Bu program, alacakları hizmet içi eğitimlerle öğretmenlerin de kendilerini geliştirmelerine olanak sağlar. Hazırladıkları projeler ve uyguladıkları testlerle öğrenciler, bilgiyi kullanma olanağı elde ederler. Öğrenciler, İngilizceyi pratikte kullanma fırsatı bulurlar. United Schools Homeschooling üyesi okulların eğitim standartları bu programla yükselecektir.

### Famous Homeschoolers Artists

- Claude Monet
- Grandma Moses

- Leonardo da Vinci
- Apart Rembrandt

### Famous Homeschoolers Athletes

- Michelle Kwan
- Jason Taylor
- Tim Tebow
- Serena Williams
- Venus Williams

### Famous Homeschoolers Authors

- Agatha Christie
- Alex Haley
- Beatrix Potter
- C.S. Lewis
- Charles Dickens
- George Bernard Shaw
- Hans Christian Anderson
- Louisa May Alcott
- Margaret Atwood
- Mark Twain
- Phillis Wheatley
- Pearl S. Buck
- Robert Frost
- Virginia Woolf

### Famous Homeschoolers Composers

- Felix Mendelssohn
- Irving Berlin
- John Philip Sousa
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

### Famous Homeschoolers Entertainers

- Alan Alda
- Charlie Chaplin
- Christina Aguilera
- Dakota Fanning
- Hillary Duff
- Jennifer Love Hewitt
- Justin Timberlake
- LeAnne Rimes
- Louis Armstrong
- Whoopi Goldberg

### Famous Homeschoolers Explorers

- Davy Crockett
- George Rogers Clark

### Famous Homeschoolers Inventors

- Alexander Graham Bell
- Benjamin Franklin
- Cyrus McCormick
- Eli Whitney
- Thomas Edison
- Orville Wright
- Wilbur Wright

### Famous Homeschoolers Military Leaders

- Douglas MacArthur
- George Patton
- John Paul Jones
- Robert E. Lee
- Stonewall Jackson
- Matthew Perry

### Famous Homeschoolers Military Presidents

- Ansel Adams

### Famous Homeschoolers Military Photographers

- Abraham Lincoln
- Andrew Jackson
- Franklin Delano Roosevelt
- George Washington
- Grover Cleveland
- James Garfield
- James Madison
- John Adams
- John Quincy Adams
- John Tyler
- Theodore Roosevelt
- Thomas Jefferson
- William Henry Harrison
- Woodrow Wilson

### Famous Homeschoolers Businessmen

- Andrew Carnegie
- Colonel Harland Sanders
- Dave Thomas
- Joseph Pulitzer
- Ray Kroc

### Famous Homeschoolers Religious Leaders

- Brigham Young
- Dwight L. Moody
- Joan of Arc
- John & Charles Wesley
- William Carey

### Famous Homeschoolers Scientists

- Albert Einstein
- Blaise Pascal
- Booker T. Washington
- George Washington Carver
- Pierre Curie

### Famous Homeschoolers Statesman

- Alexander Hamilton
- Daniel Webster
- Patrick Henry
- William Jennings Bryan
- William Penn
- Winston Churchill

### Famous Homeschoolers United States Supreme Court Judges

- John Jay
- John Marshall
- John Rutledge
- Sandra Day O’Connor

### Eğitim Programlarımız

American National Homeschooling ve American National ELT arasındaki antlaşmaya göre, öğrencilerimiz, Türk eğitim müfredatına eş olarak alacakları Amerikan eğitim müfredatıyla Amerika Birleşik Devletleri açık öğretim orta okulu / lisesi diploması alacaklardır. Bu eğitim programı öğrencilerimize sunulan bir ayrıcalıktır. Homeschooling programına katılan öğrenciler, uyguladıkları projeleri ve öğrendikleri farklı metotları hayatlarının her alanına taşıma fırsatı bulurlar ve farklı kazanımlar elde ederler. American National Homeschooling, öğrencilerimize hayat boyu öğrenme yetisini kazandıran eşsiz bir fırsattır.

### Neden Homeschool?

UK Homeschool öğrencileri lise eğitimleri sonunda İngiltere, Amerika, Avrupa ülkelerindeki üniversitelere sınavsız başvuru hakkına sahip olurlar. 12. sınıf sonunda uluslararası geçerliliği olan UK Homeschool diploması International Independent Schools Authoritiy (IISA) tarafından verilir ve UK Accreditation tarafından onaylıdır. Bu program esnek bir eğitim sistemine sahip olduğu için mevcut ulusal ders programı ile beraber tamamlanması ve yürütülmesi kolaydır. Yıl içinde yapılan çeşitli Başarı Testleri ile öğrencilerin gelişimini takip etmenizi sağlar. UK Homeschool programı tamamen online olarak hazırlanmıştır. Bunun yanı sıra ders müfredatını kaynak yayınlarla destekler. Her öğrenciye bir danışman atanır. Bu program, alacakları hizmet içi eğitimlerle öğretmenlerin de kendilerini geliştirmelerine olanak sağlar. Hazırladıkları projeler ve uyguladıkları testlerle öğrenciler, bilgiyi kullanma olanağı elde ederler. Öğrenciler, İngilizceyi pratikte kullanma fırsatı bulurlar. United Schools Homeschooling üyesi okulların eğitim standartları bu programla yükselecektir.

### Dünya Standartlarında Uluslararası Geçerli Diploma Programı

Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’nin Ortaokul ve Lise düzeyinde en popüler eğitim sistemleri arasında gösterilen Home Schooling; Fransa, İngiltere, Kanada ve Yeni Zelanda’dan sonra şimdi de Türkiye’de..! Öyle görünüyor ki Home Schooling yakın geleceğin yeni eğitim sistemi olacak. Bu eğitim sistemi içeriside yer alan, alanında uzman branş öğretmenleri ve eğitim koçları ile birlikte öğrencilerimiz “Yaşam Boyu Öğrenme” metoduyla tanışacaklar ve sahip oldukları enerjiyi, yaratıcılık ve hayal gücünü kullanma alanlarına kanalize edeceklerdir. Tüm bunların yanı sıra öğrencilerimiz Amerika, İngiltere ve birçok Avrupa ülkesinde geçerli NSBA diplomasının ayrıcalığını yaşayacak ve çift diploma sahibi olmanın avantajlarını kullanacaklardır.

### Nasıl uygulanır?

Amerika Birleşik Devletleri fark derslerini içeren bilingual (Türkçe – İngilizce) açıklamalı ders kitapları merkezimizce öğrencilerimizin ev adreslerine gönderilir. Her sene mayıs ayı içinde Amerika Birleşik Devletleri Çift Diploma Programı sınavı merkezimizce yapılır. Amerika Birleşik Devletleri Açık Öğretim Programında sınıfta kalmak yoktur. American National Homeschooling programı öğrencileri, program sonunda uygulanacak testi tamamlayarak, Amerika’da, İngiltere’de ve bir çok Avrupa ülkesinde geçerli yüzlerce üniversiteye sınavsız başvuru hakkı sağlayan NSBA diploması almaya hak kazanırlar.

### Neden önemlidir?

Homeschooling öğrencileri ortaokul eğitimi sonunda Amerikan liselerine, lise eğitimi sonunda da Amerikan üniversitelerine sınavsız başvuru hakkına sahip olurlar.8. ve 12. sınıf sonunda uluslararası geçerliliği olan American National Homeschooling diploması verilecektir.Bu program esnek bir eğitim sistemine sahip olduğu için Türkiye’deki mevcut ders programı ile beraber tamamlanması ve yürütülmesi kolaydır.Yıl içinde yapılan çeşitli Başarı Testleri ile öğrencilerin gelişimini takip etmenizi sağlar.American National Homeschooling, ders müfredatını kaynak yayınlarla destekler.Bu program, alacakları düzenli hizmet içi eğitimlerle öğretmenlerin de kendilerini geliştirmelerine olanak sağlar.Hazırladıkları projeler ve uyguladıkları testlerle öğrenciler, bilgiyi kullanma olanağı elde ederler.Öğrenciler, öğrendikleri İngilizceyi pratikte kullanma fırsatı bulurlar.American National Homeschooling üyesi okulların eğitim standartları bu programla yükselecektir.

### Ara Sınavlar ve Yıl Sonu Sınavları

Ara sınavlar online olarak öğrencilerimize uygulanacaktır. İki adet arasınavımız bulunmaktadır. Yıl sonu sınavı ise Genel Merkez tarafından, danışmanınızın denetiminde uygulanacak ve yine Genel Merkez tarafından değerlendirilecektir.

### Homeschooling Uygulayan Ülkeler

Türkiye, South Africa, Canada, United States, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, India, Indonesia, Israel, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand

### Neden Homeschooling?

Öğrencilerin yabancı dil konuşabilme oranı %30 artar. Ailenin iletişimi ve takibi çoçukları ile bağlarını güçlendirir. Öğrencilerin eğitim koçları sayesinde başarıları artar. Öğrencilerin Dili kullabilmesi ve kendini ifade etmesi kolaylaşır. Öğrenciler alanında uzman matematik ve fen öğretmenleri ile konuları yabancı dilde ve anadilinde kuvvetlendirir. Yıl sonu sınavı ise Genel Merkez tarafından, danışmanınızın denetiminde uygulanacak ve yine Genel Merkez tarafından değerlendirilecektir. Yurt dışı Lise ve Üniversitelerinde okuma şansı yakalar.

### Geziler Hakkında Bilgi

Bunun yanı sıra eğitim koçu, öğrencilerle yıl içinde yapacağı interaktif çalışmaları hazırlar. Planlanan bir araştırma projesinde, aslında tüm görev öğrenciye aittir. Eğitim koçu, yalnızca yönlendirmek ve hedefe doğru yoldan ulaşmayı sağlayacak önerilerde bulunmak amacıyla projeyi yönetir. Örneğin: Bölgelerinde bulunan en yüksek dağ ya da tepenin zirvesine tırmanmak için planlanan projede öğrencilerin; Katılımcılar, Kullanılacak malzemeler, Güzergah, Konaklama, Riskler, Malzeme ihtiyacı, Klavuz gibi süreçleri belirlemeleri ve planlamaları beklenir. Bu ve benzeri iç ve dış mekan aktiviteleri, deneysel çalışmalar ve araştırma gezileri, yıl içerisinde eğitim koçunun rehberliğinde öğrenciler tarafından planlanır ve uygulanır. Böylece öğrencilerimizin insiyatif alma, karar verme, risk analizi yapma, uygulama ve sonuca ulaşma gibi konularda gelişimleri hedeflenir.

### Bireysel Başvuru Nasıl Yapılır?

Aşağıda bulunan iletişim formumuzu doldurarak American National Homeschooling programına bireysel olarak da başvurabilirsiniz. Başvurunuz bize ulaştığında 3 işgünü içerisinde verdiğiniz iletişim bilgileri aracılığıyla sizi arayacak ve sürecin nasıl gelişeceği konusunda bilgilendireceğiz. Bireysel başvuru yapıp başvurusu onaylanan her öğrenciye bir eğitim koçu atanır ve öğrenci diplomasını alana kadar eğitim koçunun danışmanlığında çalışmalarını yürütür. » Eğitim materyalleri Genel Merkez tarafından öğrencinin başvuru sırasında belirttiği adrese gönderilir. Eğitim tamamlandığında, Genel Merkez tarafından planlanan yıl sonu sınavı online olarak uygulanır ve yine Genel Merkez tarafından değerlendirilir. Katılımcı öğrencilerin NSBA diplomaları bu değerlendirme sonrasında hazırlanacak ve adreslerine gönderilecektir. Planlanacak bir tanıtım toplantısıyla öğrenci ve veliler okula davet edilecek ve American National Homeschooling programı ve bu programın kazandıracakları ayrıntılarıyla sunulacaktır.

### Kitaplarımız Hakkında Bilgi

American National Homeschooling programında kullanılacak Fen Bilgisi ve Matematik kitapları çift dilli olarak (İngilizce-Türkçe) hazırlanmıştır. Kitaplarımız Amerika Birleşik Devletleri müfredatının,Türk Eğitim Sistemi müfredatına göre farklı olan konularını içerir. Bu sayede öğrencilerimiz alacakları NSBA diploması için uygulanacak teste herhangi bir konu açığı kalmadan hazırlanabilirler. Tüm basılı ve online materyaller Genel Merkez tarafından sağlanır.

## Kabul Eden Üniversiteler 2021

United Schools Homeschooling öğrencileri, İngiltere, Amerika ve Avrupa ülkelerinde üniversitelere sınavsız başvuru yapabilir. Bu üniversitelerden bazıları aşağıda listelenmiştir.

## Ders İçerikleri

## 5.sınıf Konuları

## Mathematics

### Number Theory

**Know numbers through the billions; be able to write these in both numerals and words.****Order and compare numbers to 999,999,999 using greater than (>), lesser than (<), and equals (=) signs.****Write numbers in expanded form.** That is,

896,432 = 800,000 + 90,000 + 6,000 + 400 + 30 + 2**Reinforce concepts of place value.****Round numbers to the nearest 10, 100, 1,000, or 10,000.****Compare and order negative numbers on a number line.** Kids should be able to define integer; and should know that the sum of any integer and its opposite is 0.**Study the concept of exponents.** Kids should know the perfect squares and square roots through 144, understand the terms squared, cubed, and to the nth power, and understand the relationship between exponents and repeated multiplication. They should be able to identify powers of 10 through 10^{6} (= 10x10x10x10x10x10 or 1,000,000).**Identify, create, and experiment with numerical patterns such as triangular numbers, square numbers, and arithmetic and geometric sequences.** Kids should approach such patterns in varied ways, using manipulatives, paper and pencil, and calculators. Given a starting number and a basic rule, kids should be able to generate number sequences of their own.**Define prime and composite numbers.** Be able to identify prime and composite numbers to 100.

### Probability and Statistics

**Collect, organize and interpret data using line, bar, and circle (“pie”) graphs, tables, and stem-and-leaf and scatter plots.****Solve problems involving the interpretation of graphs and tables.** Good sources for real-life data include news magazines and the daily newspaper.**Find average (mean) of a set of numbers.****Perform simple probability experiments.** Use a variety of methods for generating random outcomes: flipped coins, dice, and spinners, for example.**Plot points on a coordinate grid.**

### Fractions and Decimals

**Express relationships as simple ratios.** Introduction to ratio should be approached in hands-on fashion. For example, kids should make simple scale drawings using ratios.**Recognize equivalent fractions.****Determine the least common denominator of fractions with unlike denominators.** Kids at this grade level should also be able to reduce fractions to their lowest terms.**Compare fractions with like and unlike denominators using greater than (>), lesser than (<), and equals (=) signs.****Add, subtract, and multiply fractions with like and unlike denominators.****Identify mixed numbers and improper fractions; change mixed numbers to improper fractions and vice versa.** Kids should be able to add, subtract, and multiply mixed numbers and improper fractions.**Round fractions to the nearest whole number.****Read, write, and order decimals to the ten-thousandths place.****Round decimals to the nearest tenth, hundredth, and thousandth.****Add and subtract decimals to four places.****Multiply and divide decimals by 10, 100, and 1,000; multiply decimals by whole numbers and by other decimal numbers.****Write fractions as decimals and vice versa.**

### Operations

**Know the basic multiplication facts through 12×12; and the equivalent basic division facts.****Define and understand the commutative and associative properties of addition and the commutative, associative, and distributive properties of multiplication.** These rules are used to determine whether or not two mathematical expressions are equivalent.

The commutative property of addition shows that it doesn’t matter in what order two numbers are added; the answer will always come out the same. Or, in mathematical terms, for any two numbers “a” and “b”: a + b = b + a.

The associative property of addition shows that the same holds true for more than two numbers. In mathematical terms, for any three numbers a, b and c: (a + b) + c = a + (b + c).

The commutative property of multiplication similarly shows that it doesn’t matter in what order two given numbers are multiplied. In other words, for any two numbers a and b:

a x b = b x a.

The associative property of multiplication carries this principle a step further, to more than two numbers. For example, for any three numbers, a, b, and c: (a x b) x c = a x (b x c)

The distributive property of multiplication shows how multiplication is related to addition and subtraction. For any two numbers a and b : a (b + c = ab + ac and a (b – c) = ab – ac.**Add, subtract, multiply, and divide numbers to four digits with and without regrouping.** For example, kids should be able to multiply two factors of up to four digits each; and should be able to divide dividends of up to four digits by one- to three-digit divisors. Kids should be familiar with the use of calculators for arithmetic operations.**Estimate answers to arithmetical problems. Check answers using appropriate strategies.****Solve multistep word problems and numerical problems involving more than one operation.**

### Money and Measurement

**Solve money problems using all arithmetical operations.****Be familiar with English and metric measurements of length, volume, capacity, and weight/mass; measures of time; and measures of temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and Centigrade (Celsius).** Kids should know measurement equivalencies (such as 1 foot = 12 inches, 1 kilometer = 1,000 meters) and should be able to convert to common units of measurement in problems involving both yards and feet, for example, kids should know that one must be converted to the other before a solution can be found.**Solve problems on elapsed time with and without regrouping.** In multiplication and division problems involving time, for example, kids should be able to regroup, converting minutes to hours as necessary.

## Geometry

**Recognize and identify common polygons and polyhedrons.** Kids should know that regular polygons have sides of equal length and angles of equal measure.**Identify similar and congruent figures and symmetrical and asymmetrical figures.** Encourage kids to experiment with transformational motions of plane figures, including translations (slides), rotations (turns), and reflections (flips).**Recognize right, acute, and obtuse angles.** Kids should be able to use a protractor to draw and measure angles. They should know that a right angle equals 90 degrees; that an acute angle is less than 90 degrees; an obtuse angle, more than 90 degrees; and a straight angle, 180 degrees.**Calculate the perimeters of polygons and the areas of rectangles, squares, and right triangles.** Kids should know that the area of a rectangle can be determined using the formula A = lw (Area = length x width) and the area of a right triangle using the formula A = 1/2bh (Area = 1/2 x base x height). They should also know that area is measured in square units.**Identify the various parts of a circle.** Kids at this level should be able to identify circumference, diameter, radius, arc, and chord. They should draw circles of given radii or diameters, using a compass, and should calculate the circumference of o circle using the formula C = ?d.

## Science

### Physical Science

**Review and expand upon studies of atomic structure.** Topics to cover include the structure of the atom, types of subatomic particles, the concept of electron shells and energy levels, and molecules and compounds.

Kids should be able to describe current theories of atomic structure and name the three basic subatomic particles. They should know that protons are positively charged; electrons, negatively charged; and neutrons, neutral. They should understand the concept of electron orbital shells or energy levels, and should understand how individual atoms bond to form molecules and compounds.

Kids should also know the composition of some common compounds, such as water, table salt, and sugar.**Survey the elements of the periodic table.** Topics to cover include the definition of element, the organization and use of the periodic table of elements, the definitions of atomic symbol, number, and weight, and the characteristics of metal and nonmetals.

Kids should know that elements consist of only a single kind of atom and that the atoms of a given element are identified by their characteristic number of protons (the atomic number). They should review the organization of the periodic table of elements and learn the atomic symbols for representative common elements, such as oxygen (O), iron (Fe), gold (Au), copper (Cu), and so on. They should know that about two-thirds of the known elements are metals, which are characterized by electrical and thermal conductivity, malleability, ductility, and a shiny appearance. They should also know that some metals, such as bronze and brass, are alloys: combinations of two or more elemental metals.**Chemical and physical properties of matter.** Topics to cover include the definitions and examples of physical and chemical changes, the ways in which chemists use chemical and physical properties to explore the composition of matter, and an overview of new compounds generated by chemical research (plastics, Teflon, Kevlar).

Kids should understand that physical changes alter only the physical properties or appearance of a substance. Examples include cutting a substance into smaller pieces or changing its state or phase, as in the freezing of water. Chemical changes, on the other hand, produce completely new substances. Examples include the rusting of iron and the burning of wood.**Review and reinforce studies of force and motion.** Topics to cover include potential and kinetic energy, Newton’s laws of motion, and concepts of distance, rate, speed, acceleration, and gravity.

Kids should experiment with force and motion using simple apparatus such as balls and small toy cars, and should be able to define potential energy, kinetic energy, force, velocity, and inertia. They should be familiar with distance/rate/time interrelationships, and should be able, for example, to calculate the time it would take to travel a given distance at given speed. They should be able to define acceleration and should understand the concept of acceleration of falling objects due to the force of gravity. To enhance these studies, kids should experiment with a variety of falling objects of varying masses, demonstrating, for example, the effect of air resistance on rate of fall. A historical accompaniment to the study of acceleration might be a biography of Galileo, including an account of his landmark experiments with falling bodies.

### Life Science

**Enlarge and expand upon earlier studies of plant and animal classification.** Topics to cover include the definition of taxonomy, an overview of the five kingdoms of living things (plants, animals, fungi, protists, and monerans), taxonomical subdivisions (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species), scientific names, and a review of the major classes of vertebrates and their characteristics: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

A supplement to this topic might be a biography of Carolus Linnaeus, the eighteenth-century scientist known as the “Father of Taxonomy”.**Enlarge and expand upon earlier introduction to cell biology.** Topics to cover include cell theory; comparison of plant, animal, ad bacterial cells; major cellular organelles and their functions; and the organization of cells into tissues, organs, and systems.**Enlarge and expand upon studies of botany.** Topics to cover include comparisons of vascular and nonvascular plants; the process of photosynthesis; vegetative and sexual reproduction; the anatomy of flowers; and seed and fruit production.

Kids should be able to describe the characteristics of nonvascular plants (such as algae) and vascular plants, which use xylem and phloem to transport water and nutrient. They should know the principles of the process of photosynthesis, including the functions of chloroplasts and chlorophyll. They should be able to describe and cite examples of vegetative reproduction in plants and should experiment with a range of examples: for example, sprouting potato eyes, ivy leaves, or carrot tops.

They should be able to compare and contrast reproduction in spore-bearing plants (such as ferns), nonflowering vascular plants (conifers), and flowering vascular plants. They should understand the functions of sepals, petals, stamens, anthers, pistils, ovaries and the various modes of pollination. Kids might collect and classify evergreen cones, dissect flowers, examine samples of pollen under a microscope or magnifying glass, and germinate and cultivate seeds.

## 6.sınıf Konuları

## Mathematics

### Number Theory

**Identify factors, multiples, primes, and composite numbers.** Kids should be able identify the greatest common factor (GCF) and least common multiple (LCM) of given numbers.**Understand the properties of real numbers.** Kids should know the definitions of natural numbers, real numbers, rational and irrational numbers, and integers. They should be able to describe any given number in terms of these number sets.

They should also be familiar with the associative, commutative, and distributive properties of real number system; inverse relationships; and the properties of 0 and 1.**Understand the concept of absolute value.** Kids should know the symbol for absolute value, should be able to find absolute value of any real number, and should be able to use value properties to solve problems and evaluate mathematical expressions.

### Ratio and Percent / Fractions and Decimals

**Use ratios and proportions to solve mathematical and real-world problems.** Kids should be able to read, write, and compute ratios and proportions. They should also be able to determine missing terms in proportions and make accurate scale drawings based on proportions.

They should be able to use their knowledge of ratio and proportion to solve rate problems, using the formula d = rt (distance = rate x time).**Compare and order fractions, decimals, integers, and percents.** Kids should be able to use fractions, decimals, and percents interchangeably and should recognize equivalent representations.**Solve mathematical and real-world problems involving percents.** For example, kids should be able to use their knowledge of percents to solve problems involving sales tax and discounts.

### Operations

**Be able to add, subtract, multiply, and divide with both positive and negative numbers.****Round numbers to the appropriate significant digit.****Continue studies of exponents.** Kids should understand positive and negative exponents and should know that any non-0 number to the 0 power is 1. They should understand why a negative number raised to an even power is positive, while negative number raised to an odd power is negative, and they should be able to multiply exponential numbers.

They should also be able to convert numbers to and from scientific notation.**Experiment with a range of problem-solving strategies and tools, selecting the most appropriate for a given problem.** For example, kids should tackle problems by drawing diagrams, making charts and tables, evaluating patterns, breaking a complex problem down into simpler components, and so on. They should be encouraged to experiment with a range of mathematical tools, from pencil and paper to concrete manipulatives, calculators, and computers.**Use estimation skills in all branches of mathematics.**

### Measurements

**Select and use appropriate measures of length, area, volume capacity, weight/mass, time, and temperature.****Compare and convert units of measure both within and between the English and metric systems.** For example, kids at this grade level should be able to convert kilometers to miles, pounds to kilograms, and centimeters to inches, and vice versa.**Use measures expressed as rates or products to solve problems.** Measures expressed as rates include speed (miles per hr; km per sec) and density (grams per cubic centimeter); measures expressed as products include kilowatt-hours and foot-pounds.

### Probability and Statistics

**Collect, organize, and interpret data using a range of methods including bar graphs, lime graphs, circle graphs, tables and charts, and frequency distributions.** Kids should experiment with graphing calculators and computer software.**Determine the theoretical probability of an event and compare with experimental results.****Find the number of combinations possible in a given situation using a variety of computational methods.****Show the relationship between two variables using a scatter plot.** Kids should be able to distinguish between independent and dependent events.**Graph measures of variability.** Kids should be able to identify and display range, distribution, and outliners, and describe the central tendencies of a data set using mean, median, and mode.

### Geometry

**Identify, classify, and construct regular and irregular polygons.** Kids should be able to determine perimeter, area, and sum of interior angles of each.**Describe and construct common solids: right prisms, cylinders, cones, and spheres.** Kids should be able to calculate the surface areas and volumes of these solids using appropriate formulas.**Know the properties of parallel lines, perpendicular lines, bisectors, transversals, and angles.** Kids should be able to construct parallel lines, perpendicular lines, transversals, bisectors, and angles using a protractor, compass, and/or straight edge. They should know the properties of angles formed by the transversal of parallel lines and should recognize and define various types and features of angles, including congruent, vertical, complementary, supplementary, adjacent, corresponding, and alternate interior and exterior.**Know and understand the Pythagorean Theorem and use it to solve geometrical problems.** In a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.**Analyze effects of basic transformations on geometric shapes.** Kids should be able to identify translations, reflections, and rotations. They should also be able to determine how changes of scale affect measures of perimeter, area, and volume.

### Prealgebra

**Evaluate and solve algebraic equations and inequalities in one variable using addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.**

Try this: 2 (4x – 5) + x = 6 (x + 3)

Kids should be able to apply such concepts as the distributive property of multiplication and order of operations to algebraic equations.**Write and solve equations for word problems.****Graph simple functions on a coordinate plane and solve related problems.** Kids should be able to translate patterns and proportions into equations and graphs. For example, given a mathematical rule such as y = 2x, they should be able to create a table of values and represent the results as ordered pairs plotted on a coordinate grid. They should also be able to translate linear graphs into equations.

At this grade level, kids should understand the concepts of function and slope. They should be familiar with equations in the form y = ax, where is the slope of the graphed line; and y = ax + b, where is the slope of the line, and b the y-intercept.**Understand equality properties for equations.** Kids should know that equations are equivalent when the same quantity is added or subtracted from each side of the equation; or when each side of the equation is multiplied or divided by a quantity other than zero.

## Science

### Physical Science

**Survey atomic theory.** Topics to cover include the nature of atoms, molecules, and compounds, the history of chemistry from the ancient Greeks to Mendeleyev, models of atomic structure, and kinds of subatomic particles.**Understand major types of chemical bonds and reactions.** Topics to cover include the atomic basis of chemical bonds, ionic and covalent bonds, salts, oxidation and reduction reactions, acids and bases, and chemical equations.**Understand and use the periodic table of elements.** Kids should be familiar with the organization of the periodic table, should understand atomic number and atomic weight, and should know the definition of isotope.

A good supplement to studies of the periodic table might be a biography of Dmitry Mendeleyev.

### Life Science

**Compare and contrast structure and function of typical plant and animal cells.** Kids should be able to identify and describe major cell organelles, including nucleus, nuclear membrane, cytoplasm, cell membrane, vacuoles, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth), and mitochondria.**Understand the processes of cell division.** Kids should be able to define, compare, and contrast meiosis and mitosis and should know what a mutation is.**Survey the science of genetics.** Topics to cover include Gregor Mendel’s experiments; definitions of dominant and recessive traits, alleles, genotype, and phenotype; chromosomes and genes; DNA structure and function; common genetic disorders; and genetic engineering.

For example, kids should understand the molecular basis for genetic change. They should also know how DNA is replicated and transcribed, and should understand the one gene-one protein hypothesis. Good supplements to these studies might be biographies of scientists James Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin, and Barbara McClintock.**Survey the science of evolution.** Topics to cover include the definition of evolution; concepts of mutation, adaptation, natural selection, extinction, and speciation; Charles Darwin and The Origins of Species; and an overview of the evidence for evolution from the fields of geology, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and molecular biology.

### Earth/Space Science

**Be familiar with geological history of earth.** Topics to cover include concepts of uniformitarianism and catastrophism, the rock cycle, stratigraphy, fossil formation, radioactive dating, the age of the earth and the progression of life on earth, the means in which crustal plate movements have affected distribution of living things, and the Cretaceous extinction.

Kids should know that evidence from the geologic record and radioactive dating studies indicate that the earth is 4.6 billion years old and that life first appeared about 3 billion years ago. Good supplements to this study might include making geologic timelines, visiting a road cut or other geologic site to view rock layers, and reading biographies of Charles Lyell, Alfred Wegener, and Luis Alvarez.**Know the four major eras of geologic time and the characteristics of each.** The four major geologic eras are the Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic.

## 7.sınıf Konuları

## Mathematics

### Number Theory

**Read and write numbers through the trillions in both numerals and words.****Reinforce concepts of place value; recognize place value through the billions.****Round numbers to the nearest ten, hundred, thousand, ten thousand, hundred thousand, and million.****Reinforce concept of exponents introduced in previous grade.** Kids should know the perfect squares and square roots through 144; understand the terms squared, cubed, and the nth power; and be familiar with powers of 10.**Determine whether a given number is prime or composite.****Determine the greatest common factor (GCF) and least common multiple (LCM) of given numbers.****Explore a variety of alternative number systems, including ancient systems and alternate bases.**

### Ratio and Percent

**Determine and express simple ratios.** Kids should be able to use ratios and proportions to interpret map scales and scale drawings and to create accurate scale drawings of their own.**Solve problems involving ratios.** For example, kids should be able to use ratios to determine the lengths of the sides of similar triangles.**Define and model percents.** Kids should recognize the percent sign (%) and know that percent means “per hundred”. Use grids or manipulatives to demonstrate percents.**Translate among fractions, decimals, and percents.** Kids should be able to determine, for example, that ^{1}/_{10} = 0.1 = 10%, and should know that 1/4 = 25%; 1/2 = 50%; and 3/4 = 75%.**Solve problems using percents.** For example, kids should be able to determine percents of a given number, as in “What is 5% of 60?”

### Fractions and Decimals

**Identify the reciprocal of a given fraction.** Kids should also know that the product of a fraction and its reciprocal is 1.**Add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions and mixed numbers with like and unlike denominators.****Compare and order fractions and decimals on a number line.****Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals.** Kids should be able to add and subtract multidigit decimals and to multiply and divide decimals by 10, 100, and 1,000; by whole numbers; and by other decimals. They should know how to move the decimal point when multiplying or dividing by 10s.

### Operations

**Define and understand the commutative and associative properties of addition and the commutative, associative, and distributive properties of multiplication.****Add, subtract, multiply, and divide multidigit numbers with and without a calculator.** Know methods for checking answers; be able to estimate answers.**Solve word problems with multiple steps and mathematical problems with more than one operation according to order of operations.**

### Measurement

**Compare and convert units of measurement within the English and metric measurement systems.** Within systems, kids should be able to compare and convert measures of length, area, volume, capacity, and weight/mass. They should, for example, be able to convert square feet to square inches, liters to milliliters, and ounces to pounds.**Define precision and accuracy in measurement.** Accuracy indicates how close a measurement is to its true value; precision refers to the reproducibility of the measured value (that is, if you take the measurement three times, how closely will the results agree?).

### Probability and Statistics

**Collect, organize, and interpret data using graphs, charts, plots, and tables.** Kids should create their own graphic representations of data and should solve problems that require the interpretation of graphs and tables. They should experiment with the use of computer spreadsheets or calculators with graphing capabilities to display and categorize data.**Determine range and measures of central tendency of a given set of numbers.** Kids should be able to calculate mean, median, and mode and should know the appropriate use of each.**Understand statistical sampling.** Kids should understand the use samples of making predictions and mathematical inferences.**Plot points on a coordinate grid using ordered pairs of positive and negative whole numbers.** Kids should be familiar with the four quadrants of a coordinate grid and be able to locate the origin, x-axis, and y-axis.**Conduct simple probability experiments and express the results in decimals and percents.**

### Geometry

**Recognize, measure, and construct angles.** Kids should be able to measure angles using a protractor; classify angles at acute, obtuse, or right; and construct angles of a given degree. They should also be able to classify angles as interior, exterior, complementary, or supplementary.**Calculate the perimeters and areas of plane figures.** Kids should know the formulas for calculating the areas of rectangles, squares, triangles, and parallelograms. They should also be able to determine the areas of irregular polygons by dividing them into regular figures.**Calculate the circumferences and areas of circles.** Kids should be able to construct circles of a given radius or diameter, using a compass, and should be able to calculate perimeter and area using the appropriate formulas.**Know triangle sum theorem.** Kids should know that the sum of the three angles of a triangle always equals 180 degrees and should be able to solve problems to find missing angles.**Identify and construct different kinds of triangles.** Kids should be able to identify right, isosceles, equilateral, and scalene triangles and construct examples of each using protractors and rulers.**Identify similar, congruent, and symmetrical figures.** Kids should be familiar with the results of transformational geometry: translations, reflections, and rotations.

### Prealgebra

**Recognize variables and solve simple equations containing variables.** Kids should be able to solve equations such as x + 5 = 11 and should be able to determine the value of an expression when given the replacement value of the variable: That is, they should be able to figure out the value of 8 � x, given that x = 2.5**Write and solve simple equations for word problems.**

## Science

### Physical Science

**Investigate the properties of heat energy.** Kids should be able to correlate heat to atomic/molecular activity. They should understand the three ways that heat energy can be transferred (via conduction, convection, or radiation), and should understand that heat transfer always proceeds from hotter to colder until equilibrium is reached.**Survey states of matter in terms of energy transfer.** Kids should be able to describe the three states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) in terms of their relative atomic/molecular activities. They should understand that phase changes occur when energy is added or subtracted from a system, and should be able to explain the molecular basis for expansion or contraction in response to changes in temperature.**Understand and explore the principle of distillation.** Kids should know that each substance has a characteristic boiling and freezing point, and be able to state the boiling and freezing points of water in both degrees Fahrenheit and Centigrade (Celsius). They should be able to define and explain the process of distillation (separation of liquid mixtures based on differences in boiling point).**Investigate the properties of light energy.** Kids should be able to define reflection, refraction, and absorption. They should understand how a prism works (play with one) and should be able to discuss and cite examples of how light energy can be transformed into heat, chemical, electrical, or mechanical energies.**Understand the law of the conservation of energy.** Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can be changed from one form to another.

### Life Science

**Explore concepts of energy transfer within ecosystems.** Kids should be able to trace the transfer or energy through ecosystems, from light energy (sunlight) to chemical energy (photosynthesis) to stored energy (plant sugars), and then from one organism to another through terrestrial and aquatic food webs.**Describe and discuss interactions of organisms and their environment within ecosystems.** Kids should be able to compare and contrast coexistence, cooperation, and competition. They should be able to define and cite examples of symbiosis, and should understand the impact of limiting factors on ecosystems and the results of external disruption of food webs.**Continue studies of human anatomy and physiology.** Kids should briefly review body systems covered in previous grades and should engage in a detailed study of the body’s immune system.

Topics to cover include the major components of the circulatory and lymphatic systems, antigens and antibodies, the structure and function of bacteria and viruses, bacterial diseases (including tetanus, typhoid, diphtheria, and tuberculosis), the discovery and mechanism of action of antibiotics, viral diseases (including the common cold, rabies, polio, and AIDS), epidemics, and the biological basis for vaccination.

Good supplements to this topic might include biographies of Edward Jenner, Louis Pasteur, and Alexander Fleming.

### Earth/Space Science

**Investigateand explore the concept of plate tectonics.** Topics to cover include Alfred Wegener and the theory of plate tectonics, the causes and effects of earthquakes, the Richter scale, geologic “hot spots” and the formation of volcanoes and island chains, and a survey of supportive evidence for plate tectonic theory.**Reinforce and expand upon studies of astronomy.** Topics to cover include Newton’s universal law of gravitation; kinds and classification of stars; the life history of stars, novas and supernovas, galaxies, pulsars and quasars; and astronomical instruments and the measurement of astronomical distances.

## 8.sınıf Konuları

## Mathematics

### Texts and Programs

**Understand the use of real numbers, including fractions, decimals, percents, ratios, and exponents.** Kids should be able to write numbers in scientific notation; identify prime and composite numbers; find the greatest common factor (GCF) and least common multiple (LCM) of two or more numbers; estimate square roots; and estimate sums, differences, products, and quotients of real numbers. They should also be able to interconvert among fractions, decimals, percents, and ratios and use fractions, decimals, percents, and ratios in real-world situations.**Know the basic properties of geometry.** Students should be familiar with the classification and measurement of angles and lines. They should be able to identify similar, congruent, and similar figures and calculate perimeter and area of regular and irregular plane figures and surface area and volume of solid figures, including rectangular solids, pyramids, prisms, cones, and cylinders. They should know the Pythagorean Theorem and be able to use it to solve problems, and they should be able to apply geometric principles to real-world situations.**Understand basic probability and statistics.** Kids should be able to compare and contrast varying graphic representations of the same data. They should be able to use measurements of central tendency, including mean, mode, and median, and apply these appropriately to problem-solving situations. They should be able to find the mathematical and experimental probability of simple and compound events, using hands-on experiments, random number generation, computer simulation, and other methods, and they should be able to display and interpret data using scatter plots.**Understand the introductory principles of algebra.** Eight graders should be able to simplify numerical expressions using order of operations, and to describe and identify commutative and associative properties of addition and subtraction and distributive properties of multiplication. They should be able to translate word problems into algebraic expressions and to evaluate and solve simple equations. They should be able to solve simple equations. They should be able to solve simple inequalities and graph the solutions, to use graphs and tables to represent relations and functions, and extend and create geometric and numerical patterns.

Given a rule or function that describes a linear equation, they should be able to make a table and create a graph; given an algebraic formula, they should be able to make substitutions and solve for one unknown.

## Science

### Physical Science

**Understand concepts of force and motion.** Kids should know the definitions of velocity and speed, be familiar with the formula s = d/t, and be able to interpret graphs plotting position versus time and speed versus time. They should understand concepts of force, including gravity, elasticity, and friction; the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on objects; and the relationship between force and mass.**Understand concepts of density and buoyancy.** For example, kids should be able to calculate density (given mass and volume); should understand the concept of buoyancy and know how to predict whether a given object will float or sink; and should understand Archimedes’s principle.**Understand concepts of work and power.** For example, kids should be able to define work and power, to solve problems using the formulas w = fd (work = force x distance) and p = w/t (power = work/time), and know common units of measure of work and power in both English and metric systems.**Reinforce and expand upon previous studies of energy.** For example, kids should know the definitions of kinetic and potential energy and be able to give examples of each. They should also understand the law of conservation of energy.**Reinforce and expand upon earlier studies of electricity and magnetism.** For example, kids should be able to compare current and static electricity. They should know the characteristics and functions of conductors, insulators, and an capacitors, should be able to define amperes, watts, and ohms, and should be able to solve problems using Ohm’s law (watts = amperes x volts). They should also understand the relationship between electricity and magnetism and be able to cite practical applications of this phenomenon.**Understand concepts of sound and light and properties of wave propagation.** Kids should understand the basic properties of waves, including transverse versus longitudinal waves, wavelength, frequency, and amplitude. They should know the properties of light and sound waves, be familiar with the composition of the electromagnetic spectrum, and understand the concepts of wave interference, resonance, and the Doppler Effect.

## 9.sınıf Konuları

## Mathematics

**Understand the use of algebraic language.** Students should be able to translate word problems and phrases into algebraic expressions and vice versa, and should be able to evaluate algebraic expressions and use algebraic formulas to solve problems.**Perform operations with real numbers.** Kids should be able to simplify numeral expressions using order of operations; determine the additive or multiplicative inverse of a number; and distinguish between rational and irrational numbers. They should also be able to determine the absolute value of expressions, to estimate square roots, to simplify radical expressions, and to perform numerical operations with square roots.**Solve equations and inequalities with one variable.** Kids should be able to solve simple equations involving fractions, absolute values, radicals, and exponents, and should be able to use equations and inequalities to solve problems.**Understand relations and functions.** Kids should be able to define and distinguish relation and function. They should be able to graph ordered pairs of numbers on coordinate plane, to graph a relation given an equation and a domain, and explore the graphs of functions using a graphing calculator or computer. They should be able to graph a linear equation, computing the x- and y- intercepts and determine the slope of nonvertical line given either the graph or the equation of the line. They should know the slope-intercept form of an equation of a line. They should be able to graph a linear inequality in two variables, and should be able to apply their knowledge of relations and functions to real-world problems and situations.**Perform operations with polynomials. ** First-year algebra students should be able to define and identify monomials, binomials, and polynomials. They should be able to add and subtract polynomials, multiply and divide monomials, binomials, and polynomials, factor the difference of two squares, and factor a simple quadratic trinomial.**Reinforce and review knowledge of proportions, ratios, and percents.** Kids should be able to simplify ratios involving algebraic expressions and use proportions, ratios, and percents in solving numerical and real-world problems.**Investigate, graph, and interpret non-linear equations.** Kids should be able to graph quadratic equations, to solve quadratic equations using the quadratic formula, and to use quadratic equations to solve problems. They should be able to recognize an exponential function and use graphing calculators or computers to investigate problems involving nonlinear equations.

## Science

### Earth/Space Science

**The formation of the sun, solar system, earth, and moon.** Topics include big bang cosmology and its supporting evidence; the compositions of sun, terrestrial planets, and gas planets; theories for the origin of the moon; the effects of asteroid impacts on earth, moon, and planets; planetary orbits and retrograde motion; Kepler’s laws; the relationship between earth’s tilt and orbital positon and seasons; moon phases; and lunar and solar eclipses.**The earth in the universe.** Topics to cover include composition of stars and galaxies, classification of stars, life histories of stars, origin of heavy elements in stars, Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams, astronomical instruments (including reflecting, refracting, radio, and X-ray telescopes), and the measurement of astronomical distances.**The structure of the earth.** Topics include the shape of the earth (including polar flattening and equatorial bulge), the circumference of the earth (including measurements from the experiments of Eratosthenes to modern times), the structure of the earth’s internal layers, the earth’s magnetic field and its measurement, and gravity and its measurement.**Plate tectonics.** Topics include the history and evidence for the theory of plate tectonics, characteristic tectonic process (including subduction, rifting, sea floor spreading, and continental collision), the relationship between volcanoes and earthquakes and plate boundaries, the structure of the ocean floor, mountain formation, earthquakes and their measurement, and classification and features of volcanoes.**Rocks and minerals.** Topics include a survey of the most common elements and most abundant minerals in the earth’s crust; common rock types: igneous (intrusive and extrusive), sedimentary (clastic and chemical), and metamorphic (foliated and unfoliated); economically valuable minerals; identification of rocks and minerals; key properties; basic crystal systems; the rock cycle; the fossil record and the geologic time scale; and fossil fuels.**The hydrologic (water) cycle.** Topics include clouds, precipitation, sources of freshwater on and under the earth, water capacity of soils and groundwater zones, the relationship between slope and run-off velocity, and the causes and effects of erosion; streams and rivers; flooding; and the source of minerals and salts in seawater.**Oceans.** Topics include a survey of oceans as complex interactive systems, topographic features of the ocean floor, the layered structure of ocean waters, waves and currents, the Coriolis Effect, the effects of ocean currents on climate, and the causes and effects of sea level and polar ice cap variations.**The atmosphere.** Topics include the structure of the atmospheric layers, measurements and studies of atmospheric changes over geologic time, the origin of atmospheric oxygen, the causes and effects of variations in carbon dioxide concentration, atmospheric regulation mechanisms, the ozone layer and its disruption, and the atmospheres of other planets.**Energy transfer patterns: dynamics of earth systems.** Topics to cover include the internal energy of the earth; solar energy and its effects and uses; causes and consequences of the greenhouse effect; differential heating and circulatory patterns of atmosphere and oceans (winds and currents); the effect of the earth’s rotation on wind and ocean currents; causes and effects of temperature inversions; climatic zones; effects of geologic and geographic features on climate; interaction of wind, ocean currents, and mountain ranges in formation of global weather patterns; the distinctions between weather and climate; weather prediction; and climatic changes over time.**Biogeochemical cycles.** Topics include the carbon cycle (photosynthesis and respiration); the global carbon cycle (including the transfer of carbon in the atmosphere, oceans, biomass, and fossil fuels); and the nitrogen cycle.**Correlate the earth sciences to state geographical features.** Students should relate the principles learned in earth science studies to familiar geographical features of their home states, explaining the causes and effects of mountain ranges, ocean currents, faults and seismic activity, and the like.

## 10.sınıf Konuları

## Mathematics

**Concepts of points, lines, and planes in one, two, and three dimensions.** Students should be able to identify points, lines, rays, segments, and planes, to find the coordinates of a point in a plane or in space, identify the midpoint of given segment on a line, and solve problems using lengths.**Composing valid proofs using a variety of reasoning strategies.** Students should understand the process of deductive reasoning and be able to state the converse, inverse, and contrapositive of a conditional statement. They should be able to construct mathematical proofs using flow diagrams, two-column formats, and paragraph formats, and should be able to solve problems and write proofs using definitions of adjacent, vertical, linear pair, complementary and supplementary angles, the angle addition postulate, and the definitions of angle bisectors, parallel lines, perpendicular lines, and perpendicular bisectors. They should understand the relationships that exist between the pairs of angles formed by parallel lines and a transversal, and they should be able to use slopes to determine whether or not a given pair of lines is parallel or perpendicular.**Properties of polygons and polyhedrons.** Students should be able to model and describe convex and regular polygons and use measures of interior and exterior angles and proportions to solve problems. They should understand the properties of similar and congruent polygons and should explore polygonal transformations, including tessellations, slides, rotations, and flips, in a coordinate plane. They should be able to model and describe regular and irregular polyhedrons; and identify similar and congruent polyhedrons.**Properties of quadrilaterals.** Students should know the properties of parallelograms, rectangles, rhombuses, squares, and trapezoids and should use these to solve problems and write proofs.**Properties of triangles.** Students should be able to classify triangles according to lengths of sides and angles, solve problems involving the interior and exterior angles of triangles, and use postulates and theorems to prove that two triangles are congruent. They should be able to apply theorems pertaining to isosceles triangles, altitudes, perpendicular bisectors, medians, segments joining midpoints of two sides of a triangle, and segments divided proportionally.

Students should also be familiar with the properties of right triangles, including the use of the Pythagorean Theorem, and should know the definitions of sine, cosine, and tangent and use these to solve problems.**Properties of circles and spheres.** Students should know the mathematical definition of a circle. They should understand the relationship between tangents and circles and the properties and theorems relating to arc, angles, of circles, chords, tangents, secants, and radii. They should know the relationship between the equation of a circle and its center and radius length; the relationships of congruent, similar, and concentric circles; and the properties of spheres.**Concepts of perimeter, area and volume.** Students should be able to determine the perimeters of geometric figures; the areas of triangles, parallelograms, trapezoids, and rectangles; and the circumferences and areas of circles. They should also be able to determine arc lengths and sector areas of circles and calculate the surface areas and volumes of right prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones, and spheres.

## Science

**Structure and function of the cell.** Topics to cover include basic cell theory; the structure and function of the cell membrane; enzymes and their functions; prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells, and viruses; the concept of the “Central Dogma” of molecular biology: information flow from DNA to RNA to protein; cellular organelles and the process of protein synthesis; the structure and function of chloroplasts and mitochondria; and the process of photosynthesis and respiration.**Principles of inheritance: Mendelian genetics.** Topics include the historical background of genetics and inheritance; the studies of Gregor Mendel; basic genetic terminology; the distinction between genotype and phenotype; autosomal and X-linked characteristics; and methods for calculating probabilities of inheritance from generation to generation.**Principles of inheritance: cellular and molecular genetics.** Topics include the processes of mitosis and meiosis; chromosomes and genes; crossing over and nondisjunction; recombination frequencies and genetic maps; DNA structure and genetic coding; the processes of transcription, translation, and protein synthesis; and genetic engineering.**The theory of evolution.** Topics include the historical background of theory, including the work of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace; biological and geological evidence for the theory; mutation and natural selection; Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; and evolution and diversity.**Classification of living things.** Topics include the Linnaean system of nomenclature and a survey of the five kingdoms of living things and their characteristics.**Human anatomy and physiology.** Topics include the structure and functions of the basic body systems and a survey of the immune system.**Ecology.** Topics include biodiversity, the major components of a biological community, food chains and food webs, the principles of population growth, a survey of the major biomes of the world, and evaluation of the impact of human beings on the environment.

## 11.sınıf Konuları

## Mathematics

**Model real-world phenomena using techniques of data analysis.** Students should recognize mathematical models of linear, quadric, exponential, trigonometric, and logarithmic functions. They should be familiar with the use of scatter plots to determine if a given model is appropriate, and with the use of the linear least squares method.**Create and analyze graphs of functions.** Students should be able to sketch graphs of the basic functions, including constant, linear, quadratic, cubic, square root, absolute value, reciprocal, trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions. They should be able to find the domain and estimate the range of a function; identify continuous and discontinuous functions; and graph transformations and combinations of transformations for all basic functions. They should also be able to compose two functions and find the domain of the composition; analyze a function by decomposing it into simpler functions; and find the inverse of a function and the domain of inverse.**Graph polynomial and rational functions.** Students should be able to find the factors of polynomials algebraically or by using a graphing calculator. They should be able to find the zeros, vertical asymptotes, and horizontal asymptotes of a rational function and sketch the graph of a rational function.**Graph, transform, and solve problems with exponential and logarithmic functions.****Model nonlinear data from real-world phenomena using techniques of data analysis.****Graph and transform trigonometric functions; solve trigonometric equations and inequalities.** Students should be able to recognize and graph each of the six trigonometric functions and their transformations and solve trigonometric equations and inequalities algebraically and with graphing calculator. They should be able to find values of inverse trigonometric functions, evaluate and graph compositions of trigonometric functions and their inverses, and use the laws of sines and cosines to solve problems with triangles and vectors. They should be able to translate degrees to radians and vice versa, convert complex numbers from rectangular to polar form and vice versa, and use DeMoivre’s Theorem to find root and powers of complex numbers.**Use discrete mathematics concepts to solve problems.** Students should be able to follow an algorithm; use operations with matrices and their inverses to solve problems; interpret data in terms of mean, standard deviation, and place on the normal distribution curve; and understand concepts of sequences and series.

## Science

**Principles of chemical investigation.** Topics include laboratory techniques and safety procedures; scientific measurement; and concepts of accuracy, precision, and significant figures.**Atomic structure and the periodic table.** Topics include atomic structure (historical and quantum models) and subatomic particles; the organization and components of the periodic table; concepts of atomic mass, weight, and number; isotopes; and electron configurations and oxidation numbers.**Chemical formulas and equations.** Topics include chemical formulas (molecular, structural, empirical, and Lewis diagrams); balancing chemical equations; ionic and covalent bonds; basic types of reactions; physical and chemical equilibria; and reaction rates and kinetics.**Molar relationships.** Topics include Avogadro’s principle, stoichiometric relationships, the gas laws, and acid/base theory.**Kinetic theory.** Topics include pressure, temperature, and volume relationships; phase changes; the heats of fusion and vaporization; specific heat capacity; and the properties of solutions.**Other areas of chemistry.** Topics include organic and biochemistry, electrochemistry, nuclear chemistry, and environmental chemistry.

## 12.sınıf Konuları

## Mathematics

**Understand and use elementary functions: algebraic, trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic.** For example, students should be able to define a function and relate functions to real-world problems and situations. They should be able to find the domain and range of a function with and without a graphing calculator and to determine the sum, product, and quotient of two functions. They should be able to determine the domain of a composition of functions and the absolute value, inverse, periodicity and amplitude, symmetry, asymptotes, and zeros of function. They should be able to find the limits of functions and recognize functions that have nonexistent limits.**Understand and use the definition of continuity.****Understand and use concepts of differential calculus.** For example, students should be able to find the derivatives of elementary and composite functions, of implicitly defined functions, and of the inverse of a function. They should know and apply the mean value theorem, the relation between differentiability and continuity, and L’Hopital’s rule.**Understand and apply concepts of derivative.** Students should be able to find the slope of a curve, the tangent line to a curve, and the normal line to a curve. They should be able to use Newton’s method to approximate the zeros of a function and find critical points, maximum and minimum points, and points of inflection of a function. They should be able to interpret graphs of the derivative to obtain information about a function and to use derivative concepts to solve problems involving velocity and acceleration.**Understand and apply concepts of integral calculus.** Students should be able to find antiderivatives and solve simple first-order differentiable equations. They should be able to use basic integration formulas, approximate the area under a curve, understand and apply properties of definite integrals, and use the fundamental theorem.

## Science

**Force and motion.** Topics include Newton’s first, second and third laws, the universal law of gravitation, concepts of circular motion, vectors, and trajectories.**Conservation of momentum and energy.** Topics include the distinctions between kinetic and potential energy, a survey of the kinds of energy (mechanical, radiant, chemical, etc.), elastic and inelastic collisions, and specific heat.**Thermodynamics.** Topics include the laws of thermodynamics, properties of energy transfers, the concept of entropy, and the relationships among head flow, work, and efficiency.**Oscillations and waves.** Topics include the distinction between transverse and longitudinal waves; concepts of wavelength, frequency, and speed; an overview of the electromagnetic spectrum; basic properties of waves (including interference, diffraction, refraction, polarization, and the Doppler Effect); and the wave and photon models of light.**Electricity and magnetism.** Topics include an overview of the basic features and concepts of electricity and magnetism; Ohm’s law and Coulomb’s law, power concepts; properties of resistors, capacitors, and transistors; the relationship between electric current and magnetic field; and the properties of plasmas.**Nuclear physics.** Topics include atomic structure, radioactivity and half-life, ionization, nuclear fission and fusion, and basic concepts of quantum physics.

American National Homeschooling Dual Skills Diploma in English. Uluslararası Ortaokul ve Lise Diploma ve Eğitim Akreditasyon Programı

## American National Homeschooling Dual Skills Diploma in English

### Uluslararası Çift Diploma ve Eğitim Akreditasyon Programı

American National Homeschooling ve American National ELT arasındaki antlaşmaya göre, öğrencilerimiz, Türk eğitim müfredatına eş olarak alacakları Amerikan eğitim müfredatıyla Amerika Birleşik Devletleri açık öğretim orta okulu / lisesi diploması alacaklardır. Bu eğitim programı öğrencilerimize sunulan bir ayrıcalıktır. Homeschooling programına katılan öğrenciler, uyguladıkları projeleri ve öğrendikleri farklı metotları hayatlarının her alanına taşıma fırsatı bulurlar ve farklı kazanımlar elde ederler. American National Homeschooling, öğrencilerimize hayat boyu öğrenme yetisini kazandıran eşsiz bir fırsattır.

### Dünya Standartlarında Uluslararası Geçerli Diploma Programı

Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’nin Ortaokul ve Lise düzeyinde en popüler eğitim sistemleri arasında gösterilen Home Schooling; Fransa, İngiltere, Kanada ve Yeni Zelanda’dan sonra şimdi de Türkiye’de..! Öyle görünüyor ki Home Schooling yakın geleceğin yeni eğitim sistemi olacak. Bu eğitim sistemi içeriside yer alan, alanında uzman branş öğretmenleri ve eğitim koçları ile birlikte öğrencilerimiz “Yaşam Boyu Öğrenme” metoduyla tanışacaklar ve sahip oldukları enerjiyi, yaratıcılık ve hayal gücünü kullanma alanlarına kanalize edeceklerdir. Tüm bunların yanı sıra öğrencilerimiz Amerika, İngiltere ve birçok Avrupa ülkesinde geçerli NSBA diplomasının ayrıcalığını yaşayacak ve çift diploma sahibi olmanın avantajlarını kullanacaklardır.

### Hakkımızda

İlkokul, Ortaokul, Lise seviyelerinde ders vermekte olan öğretmenlerimiz Matematik, Fen Bilgisi derslerini Türkçe ve İngilizce vermektedirler. Derslerin hayatın bir parçası olarak anlatıldığıldında öğrenmenin çok kolay olduğunu gözlemlemekteyiz. Günlük hayatımızda karşılaştığımız olaylardan örneklerle ders anlatmaktayız. her alanda çıkmaktadır. Bu sistemimizde amacımız her öğrencimizin öğrenebileceğini anlatmaktır. Öğrencilerimiz Amerikadan Fark dersleri almaktadırlar. Görecekleri dersler Matematik ve Fen Bilgisi’dir. Derslerin daha iyi anlaşılması için İngilizce dersleride sistemimizde dahil edilmiştir.

### Neden Homeschool?

UK Homeschool öğrencileri lise eğitimleri sonunda İngiltere, Amerika, Avrupa ülkelerindeki üniversitelere sınavsız başvuru hakkına sahip olurlar. 12. sınıf sonunda uluslararası geçerliliği olan UK Homeschool diploması International Independent Schools Authoritiy (IISA) tarafından verilir ve UK Accreditation tarafından onaylıdır. Bu program esnek bir eğitim sistemine sahip olduğu için mevcut ulusal ders programı ile beraber tamamlanması ve yürütülmesi kolaydır. Yıl içinde yapılan çeşitli Başarı Testleri ile öğrencilerin gelişimini takip etmenizi sağlar. UK Homeschool programı tamamen online olarak hazırlanmıştır. Bunun yanı sıra ders müfredatını kaynak yayınlarla destekler. Her öğrenciye bir danışman atanır. Bu program, alacakları hizmet içi eğitimlerle öğretmenlerin de kendilerini geliştirmelerine olanak sağlar. Hazırladıkları projeler ve uyguladıkları testlerle öğrenciler, bilgiyi kullanma olanağı elde ederler. Öğrenciler, İngilizceyi pratikte kullanma fırsatı bulurlar. United Schools Homeschooling üyesi okulların eğitim standartları bu programla yükselecektir.

### Famous Homeschoolers Artists

- Claude Monet
- Grandma Moses

- Leonardo da Vinci
- Apart Rembrandt

### Famous Homeschoolers Athletes

- Michelle Kwan
- Jason Taylor
- Tim Tebow
- Serena Williams
- Venus Williams

### Famous Homeschoolers Authors

- Agatha Christie
- Alex Haley
- Beatrix Potter
- C.S. Lewis
- Charles Dickens
- George Bernard Shaw
- Hans Christian Anderson
- Louisa May Alcott
- Margaret Atwood
- Mark Twain
- Phillis Wheatley
- Pearl S. Buck
- Robert Frost
- Virginia Woolf

### Famous Homeschoolers Composers

- Felix Mendelssohn
- Irving Berlin
- John Philip Sousa
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

### Famous Homeschoolers Entertainers

- Alan Alda
- Charlie Chaplin
- Christina Aguilera
- Dakota Fanning
- Hillary Duff
- Jennifer Love Hewitt
- Justin Timberlake
- LeAnne Rimes
- Louis Armstrong
- Whoopi Goldberg

### Famous Homeschoolers Explorers

- Davy Crockett
- George Rogers Clark

### Famous Homeschoolers Inventors

- Alexander Graham Bell
- Benjamin Franklin
- Cyrus McCormick
- Eli Whitney
- Thomas Edison
- Orville Wright
- Wilbur Wright

### Famous Homeschoolers Military Leaders

- Douglas MacArthur
- George Patton
- John Paul Jones
- Robert E. Lee
- Stonewall Jackson
- Matthew Perry

### Famous Homeschoolers Military Presidents

- Ansel Adams

### Famous Homeschoolers Military Photographers

- Abraham Lincoln
- Andrew Jackson
- Franklin Delano Roosevelt
- George Washington
- Grover Cleveland
- James Garfield
- James Madison
- John Adams
- John Quincy Adams
- John Tyler
- Theodore Roosevelt
- Thomas Jefferson
- William Henry Harrison
- Woodrow Wilson

### Famous Homeschoolers Businessmen

- Andrew Carnegie
- Colonel Harland Sanders
- Dave Thomas
- Joseph Pulitzer
- Ray Kroc

### Famous Homeschoolers Religious Leaders

- Brigham Young
- Dwight L. Moody
- Joan of Arc
- John & Charles Wesley
- William Carey

### Famous Homeschoolers Scientists

- Albert Einstein
- Blaise Pascal
- Booker T. Washington
- George Washington Carver
- Pierre Curie

### Famous Homeschoolers Statesman

- Alexander Hamilton
- Daniel Webster
- Patrick Henry
- William Jennings Bryan
- William Penn
- Winston Churchill

### Famous Homeschoolers United States Supreme Court Judges

- John Jay
- John Marshall
- John Rutledge
- Sandra Day O’Connor

### Eğitim Programlarımız

### Neden Homeschool?

### Dünya Standartlarında Uluslararası Geçerli Diploma Programı

### Nasıl uygulanır?

Amerika Birleşik Devletleri fark derslerini içeren bilingual (Türkçe – İngilizce) açıklamalı ders kitapları merkezimizce öğrencilerimizin ev adreslerine gönderilir. Her sene mayıs ayı içinde Amerika Birleşik Devletleri Çift Diploma Programı sınavı merkezimizce yapılır. Amerika Birleşik Devletleri Açık Öğretim Programında sınıfta kalmak yoktur. American National Homeschooling programı öğrencileri, program sonunda uygulanacak testi tamamlayarak, Amerika’da, İngiltere’de ve bir çok Avrupa ülkesinde geçerli yüzlerce üniversiteye sınavsız başvuru hakkı sağlayan NSBA diploması almaya hak kazanırlar.

### Neden önemlidir?

Homeschooling öğrencileri ortaokul eğitimi sonunda Amerikan liselerine, lise eğitimi sonunda da Amerikan üniversitelerine sınavsız başvuru hakkına sahip olurlar.8. ve 12. sınıf sonunda uluslararası geçerliliği olan American National Homeschooling diploması verilecektir.Bu program esnek bir eğitim sistemine sahip olduğu için Türkiye’deki mevcut ders programı ile beraber tamamlanması ve yürütülmesi kolaydır.Yıl içinde yapılan çeşitli Başarı Testleri ile öğrencilerin gelişimini takip etmenizi sağlar.American National Homeschooling, ders müfredatını kaynak yayınlarla destekler.Bu program, alacakları düzenli hizmet içi eğitimlerle öğretmenlerin de kendilerini geliştirmelerine olanak sağlar.Hazırladıkları projeler ve uyguladıkları testlerle öğrenciler, bilgiyi kullanma olanağı elde ederler.Öğrenciler, öğrendikleri İngilizceyi pratikte kullanma fırsatı bulurlar.American National Homeschooling üyesi okulların eğitim standartları bu programla yükselecektir.

### Ara Sınavlar ve Yıl Sonu Sınavları

Ara sınavlar online olarak öğrencilerimize uygulanacaktır. İki adet arasınavımız bulunmaktadır. Yıl sonu sınavı ise Genel Merkez tarafından, danışmanınızın denetiminde uygulanacak ve yine Genel Merkez tarafından değerlendirilecektir.

### Homeschooling Uygulayan Ülkeler

Türkiye, South Africa, Canada, United States, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, India, Indonesia, Israel, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand

### Neden Homeschooling?

Öğrencilerin yabancı dil konuşabilme oranı %30 artar. Ailenin iletişimi ve takibi çoçukları ile bağlarını güçlendirir. Öğrencilerin eğitim koçları sayesinde başarıları artar. Öğrencilerin Dili kullabilmesi ve kendini ifade etmesi kolaylaşır. Öğrenciler alanında uzman matematik ve fen öğretmenleri ile konuları yabancı dilde ve anadilinde kuvvetlendirir. Yıl sonu sınavı ise Genel Merkez tarafından, danışmanınızın denetiminde uygulanacak ve yine Genel Merkez tarafından değerlendirilecektir. Yurt dışı Lise ve Üniversitelerinde okuma şansı yakalar.

### Geziler Hakkında Bilgi

Bunun yanı sıra eğitim koçu, öğrencilerle yıl içinde yapacağı interaktif çalışmaları hazırlar. Planlanan bir araştırma projesinde, aslında tüm görev öğrenciye aittir. Eğitim koçu, yalnızca yönlendirmek ve hedefe doğru yoldan ulaşmayı sağlayacak önerilerde bulunmak amacıyla projeyi yönetir. Örneğin: Bölgelerinde bulunan en yüksek dağ ya da tepenin zirvesine tırmanmak için planlanan projede öğrencilerin; Katılımcılar, Kullanılacak malzemeler, Güzergah, Konaklama, Riskler, Malzeme ihtiyacı, Klavuz gibi süreçleri belirlemeleri ve planlamaları beklenir. Bu ve benzeri iç ve dış mekan aktiviteleri, deneysel çalışmalar ve araştırma gezileri, yıl içerisinde eğitim koçunun rehberliğinde öğrenciler tarafından planlanır ve uygulanır. Böylece öğrencilerimizin insiyatif alma, karar verme, risk analizi yapma, uygulama ve sonuca ulaşma gibi konularda gelişimleri hedeflenir.

### Bireysel Başvuru Nasıl Yapılır?

Aşağıda bulunan iletişim formumuzu doldurarak American National Homeschooling programına bireysel olarak da başvurabilirsiniz. Başvurunuz bize ulaştığında 3 işgünü içerisinde verdiğiniz iletişim bilgileri aracılığıyla sizi arayacak ve sürecin nasıl gelişeceği konusunda bilgilendireceğiz. Bireysel başvuru yapıp başvurusu onaylanan her öğrenciye bir eğitim koçu atanır ve öğrenci diplomasını alana kadar eğitim koçunun danışmanlığında çalışmalarını yürütür. » Eğitim materyalleri Genel Merkez tarafından öğrencinin başvuru sırasında belirttiği adrese gönderilir. Eğitim tamamlandığında, Genel Merkez tarafından planlanan yıl sonu sınavı online olarak uygulanır ve yine Genel Merkez tarafından değerlendirilir. Katılımcı öğrencilerin NSBA diplomaları bu değerlendirme sonrasında hazırlanacak ve adreslerine gönderilecektir. Planlanacak bir tanıtım toplantısıyla öğrenci ve veliler okula davet edilecek ve American National Homeschooling programı ve bu programın kazandıracakları ayrıntılarıyla sunulacaktır.

### Kitaplarımız Hakkında Bilgi

American National Homeschooling programında kullanılacak Fen Bilgisi ve Matematik kitapları çift dilli olarak (İngilizce-Türkçe) hazırlanmıştır. Kitaplarımız Amerika Birleşik Devletleri müfredatının,Türk Eğitim Sistemi müfredatına göre farklı olan konularını içerir. Bu sayede öğrencilerimiz alacakları NSBA diploması için uygulanacak teste herhangi bir konu açığı kalmadan hazırlanabilirler. Tüm basılı ve online materyaller Genel Merkez tarafından sağlanır.

## Kabul Eden Üniversiteler 2021

United Schools Homeschooling öğrencileri, İngiltere, Amerika ve Avrupa ülkelerinde üniversitelere sınavsız başvuru yapabilir. Bu üniversitelerden bazıları aşağıda listelenmiştir.

## Ders İçerikleri

## 5.sınıf Konuları

## Mathematics

### Number Theory

**Know numbers through the billions; be able to write these in both numerals and words.****Order and compare numbers to 999,999,999 using greater than (>), lesser than (<), and equals (=) signs.****Write numbers in expanded form.** That is,

896,432 = 800,000 + 90,000 + 6,000 + 400 + 30 + 2**Reinforce concepts of place value.****Round numbers to the nearest 10, 100, 1,000, or 10,000.****Compare and order negative numbers on a number line.** Kids should be able to define integer; and should know that the sum of any integer and its opposite is 0.**Study the concept of exponents.** Kids should know the perfect squares and square roots through 144, understand the terms squared, cubed, and to the nth power, and understand the relationship between exponents and repeated multiplication. They should be able to identify powers of 10 through 10^{6} (= 10x10x10x10x10x10 or 1,000,000).**Identify, create, and experiment with numerical patterns such as triangular numbers, square numbers, and arithmetic and geometric sequences.** Kids should approach such patterns in varied ways, using manipulatives, paper and pencil, and calculators. Given a starting number and a basic rule, kids should be able to generate number sequences of their own.**Define prime and composite numbers.** Be able to identify prime and composite numbers to 100.

### Probability and Statistics

**Collect, organize and interpret data using line, bar, and circle (“pie”) graphs, tables, and stem-and-leaf and scatter plots.****Solve problems involving the interpretation of graphs and tables.** Good sources for real-life data include news magazines and the daily newspaper.**Find average (mean) of a set of numbers.****Perform simple probability experiments.** Use a variety of methods for generating random outcomes: flipped coins, dice, and spinners, for example.**Plot points on a coordinate grid.**

### Fractions and Decimals

**Express relationships as simple ratios.** Introduction to ratio should be approached in hands-on fashion. For example, kids should make simple scale drawings using ratios.**Recognize equivalent fractions.****Determine the least common denominator of fractions with unlike denominators.** Kids at this grade level should also be able to reduce fractions to their lowest terms.**Compare fractions with like and unlike denominators using greater than (>), lesser than (<), and equals (=) signs.****Add, subtract, and multiply fractions with like and unlike denominators.****Identify mixed numbers and improper fractions; change mixed numbers to improper fractions and vice versa.** Kids should be able to add, subtract, and multiply mixed numbers and improper fractions.**Round fractions to the nearest whole number.****Read, write, and order decimals to the ten-thousandths place.****Round decimals to the nearest tenth, hundredth, and thousandth.****Add and subtract decimals to four places.****Multiply and divide decimals by 10, 100, and 1,000; multiply decimals by whole numbers and by other decimal numbers.****Write fractions as decimals and vice versa.**

### Operations

**Know the basic multiplication facts through 12×12; and the equivalent basic division facts.****Define and understand the commutative and associative properties of addition and the commutative, associative, and distributive properties of multiplication.** These rules are used to determine whether or not two mathematical expressions are equivalent.

The commutative property of addition shows that it doesn’t matter in what order two numbers are added; the answer will always come out the same. Or, in mathematical terms, for any two numbers “a” and “b”: a + b = b + a.

The associative property of addition shows that the same holds true for more than two numbers. In mathematical terms, for any three numbers a, b and c: (a + b) + c = a + (b + c).

The commutative property of multiplication similarly shows that it doesn’t matter in what order two given numbers are multiplied. In other words, for any two numbers a and b:

a x b = b x a.

The associative property of multiplication carries this principle a step further, to more than two numbers. For example, for any three numbers, a, b, and c: (a x b) x c = a x (b x c)

The distributive property of multiplication shows how multiplication is related to addition and subtraction. For any two numbers a and b : a (b + c = ab + ac and a (b – c) = ab – ac.**Add, subtract, multiply, and divide numbers to four digits with and without regrouping.** For example, kids should be able to multiply two factors of up to four digits each; and should be able to divide dividends of up to four digits by one- to three-digit divisors. Kids should be familiar with the use of calculators for arithmetic operations.**Estimate answers to arithmetical problems. Check answers using appropriate strategies.****Solve multistep word problems and numerical problems involving more than one operation.**

### Money and Measurement

**Solve money problems using all arithmetical operations.****Be familiar with English and metric measurements of length, volume, capacity, and weight/mass; measures of time; and measures of temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and Centigrade (Celsius).** Kids should know measurement equivalencies (such as 1 foot = 12 inches, 1 kilometer = 1,000 meters) and should be able to convert to common units of measurement in problems involving both yards and feet, for example, kids should know that one must be converted to the other before a solution can be found.**Solve problems on elapsed time with and without regrouping.** In multiplication and division problems involving time, for example, kids should be able to regroup, converting minutes to hours as necessary.

## Geometry

**Recognize and identify common polygons and polyhedrons.** Kids should know that regular polygons have sides of equal length and angles of equal measure.**Identify similar and congruent figures and symmetrical and asymmetrical figures.** Encourage kids to experiment with transformational motions of plane figures, including translations (slides), rotations (turns), and reflections (flips).**Recognize right, acute, and obtuse angles.** Kids should be able to use a protractor to draw and measure angles. They should know that a right angle equals 90 degrees; that an acute angle is less than 90 degrees; an obtuse angle, more than 90 degrees; and a straight angle, 180 degrees.**Calculate the perimeters of polygons and the areas of rectangles, squares, and right triangles.** Kids should know that the area of a rectangle can be determined using the formula A = lw (Area = length x width) and the area of a right triangle using the formula A = 1/2bh (Area = 1/2 x base x height). They should also know that area is measured in square units.**Identify the various parts of a circle.** Kids at this level should be able to identify circumference, diameter, radius, arc, and chord. They should draw circles of given radii or diameters, using a compass, and should calculate the circumference of o circle using the formula C = ?d.

## Science

### Physical Science

**Review and expand upon studies of atomic structure.** Topics to cover include the structure of the atom, types of subatomic particles, the concept of electron shells and energy levels, and molecules and compounds.

Kids should be able to describe current theories of atomic structure and name the three basic subatomic particles. They should know that protons are positively charged; electrons, negatively charged; and neutrons, neutral. They should understand the concept of electron orbital shells or energy levels, and should understand how individual atoms bond to form molecules and compounds.

Kids should also know the composition of some common compounds, such as water, table salt, and sugar.**Survey the elements of the periodic table.** Topics to cover include the definition of element, the organization and use of the periodic table of elements, the definitions of atomic symbol, number, and weight, and the characteristics of metal and nonmetals.

Kids should know that elements consist of only a single kind of atom and that the atoms of a given element are identified by their characteristic number of protons (the atomic number). They should review the organization of the periodic table of elements and learn the atomic symbols for representative common elements, such as oxygen (O), iron (Fe), gold (Au), copper (Cu), and so on. They should know that about two-thirds of the known elements are metals, which are characterized by electrical and thermal conductivity, malleability, ductility, and a shiny appearance. They should also know that some metals, such as bronze and brass, are alloys: combinations of two or more elemental metals.**Chemical and physical properties of matter.** Topics to cover include the definitions and examples of physical and chemical changes, the ways in which chemists use chemical and physical properties to explore the composition of matter, and an overview of new compounds generated by chemical research (plastics, Teflon, Kevlar).

Kids should understand that physical changes alter only the physical properties or appearance of a substance. Examples include cutting a substance into smaller pieces or changing its state or phase, as in the freezing of water. Chemical changes, on the other hand, produce completely new substances. Examples include the rusting of iron and the burning of wood.**Review and reinforce studies of force and motion.** Topics to cover include potential and kinetic energy, Newton’s laws of motion, and concepts of distance, rate, speed, acceleration, and gravity.

Kids should experiment with force and motion using simple apparatus such as balls and small toy cars, and should be able to define potential energy, kinetic energy, force, velocity, and inertia. They should be familiar with distance/rate/time interrelationships, and should be able, for example, to calculate the time it would take to travel a given distance at given speed. They should be able to define acceleration and should understand the concept of acceleration of falling objects due to the force of gravity. To enhance these studies, kids should experiment with a variety of falling objects of varying masses, demonstrating, for example, the effect of air resistance on rate of fall. A historical accompaniment to the study of acceleration might be a biography of Galileo, including an account of his landmark experiments with falling bodies.

### Life Science

**Enlarge and expand upon earlier studies of plant and animal classification.** Topics to cover include the definition of taxonomy, an overview of the five kingdoms of living things (plants, animals, fungi, protists, and monerans), taxonomical subdivisions (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species), scientific names, and a review of the major classes of vertebrates and their characteristics: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

A supplement to this topic might be a biography of Carolus Linnaeus, the eighteenth-century scientist known as the “Father of Taxonomy”.**Enlarge and expand upon earlier introduction to cell biology.** Topics to cover include cell theory; comparison of plant, animal, ad bacterial cells; major cellular organelles and their functions; and the organization of cells into tissues, organs, and systems.**Enlarge and expand upon studies of botany.** Topics to cover include comparisons of vascular and nonvascular plants; the process of photosynthesis; vegetative and sexual reproduction; the anatomy of flowers; and seed and fruit production.

Kids should be able to describe the characteristics of nonvascular plants (such as algae) and vascular plants, which use xylem and phloem to transport water and nutrient. They should know the principles of the process of photosynthesis, including the functions of chloroplasts and chlorophyll. They should be able to describe and cite examples of vegetative reproduction in plants and should experiment with a range of examples: for example, sprouting potato eyes, ivy leaves, or carrot tops.

They should be able to compare and contrast reproduction in spore-bearing plants (such as ferns), nonflowering vascular plants (conifers), and flowering vascular plants. They should understand the functions of sepals, petals, stamens, anthers, pistils, ovaries and the various modes of pollination. Kids might collect and classify evergreen cones, dissect flowers, examine samples of pollen under a microscope or magnifying glass, and germinate and cultivate seeds.

## 6.sınıf Konuları

## Mathematics

### Number Theory

**Identify factors, multiples, primes, and composite numbers.** Kids should be able identify the greatest common factor (GCF) and least common multiple (LCM) of given numbers.**Understand the properties of real numbers.** Kids should know the definitions of natural numbers, real numbers, rational and irrational numbers, and integers. They should be able to describe any given number in terms of these number sets.

They should also be familiar with the associative, commutative, and distributive properties of real number system; inverse relationships; and the properties of 0 and 1.**Understand the concept of absolute value.** Kids should know the symbol for absolute value, should be able to find absolute value of any real number, and should be able to use value properties to solve problems and evaluate mathematical expressions.

### Ratio and Percent / Fractions and Decimals

**Use ratios and proportions to solve mathematical and real-world problems.** Kids should be able to read, write, and compute ratios and proportions. They should also be able to determine missing terms in proportions and make accurate scale drawings based on proportions.

They should be able to use their knowledge of ratio and proportion to solve rate problems, using the formula d = rt (distance = rate x time).**Compare and order fractions, decimals, integers, and percents.** Kids should be able to use fractions, decimals, and percents interchangeably and should recognize equivalent representations.**Solve mathematical and real-world problems involving percents.** For example, kids should be able to use their knowledge of percents to solve problems involving sales tax and discounts.

### Operations

**Be able to add, subtract, multiply, and divide with both positive and negative numbers.****Round numbers to the appropriate significant digit.****Continue studies of exponents.** Kids should understand positive and negative exponents and should know that any non-0 number to the 0 power is 1. They should understand why a negative number raised to an even power is positive, while negative number raised to an odd power is negative, and they should be able to multiply exponential numbers.

They should also be able to convert numbers to and from scientific notation.**Experiment with a range of problem-solving strategies and tools, selecting the most appropriate for a given problem.** For example, kids should tackle problems by drawing diagrams, making charts and tables, evaluating patterns, breaking a complex problem down into simpler components, and so on. They should be encouraged to experiment with a range of mathematical tools, from pencil and paper to concrete manipulatives, calculators, and computers.**Use estimation skills in all branches of mathematics.**

### Measurements

**Select and use appropriate measures of length, area, volume capacity, weight/mass, time, and temperature.****Compare and convert units of measure both within and between the English and metric systems.** For example, kids at this grade level should be able to convert kilometers to miles, pounds to kilograms, and centimeters to inches, and vice versa.**Use measures expressed as rates or products to solve problems.** Measures expressed as rates include speed (miles per hr; km per sec) and density (grams per cubic centimeter); measures expressed as products include kilowatt-hours and foot-pounds.

### Probability and Statistics

**Collect, organize, and interpret data using a range of methods including bar graphs, lime graphs, circle graphs, tables and charts, and frequency distributions.** Kids should experiment with graphing calculators and computer software.**Determine the theoretical probability of an event and compare with experimental results.****Find the number of combinations possible in a given situation using a variety of computational methods.****Show the relationship between two variables using a scatter plot.** Kids should be able to distinguish between independent and dependent events.**Graph measures of variability.** Kids should be able to identify and display range, distribution, and outliners, and describe the central tendencies of a data set using mean, median, and mode.

### Geometry

**Identify, classify, and construct regular and irregular polygons.** Kids should be able to determine perimeter, area, and sum of interior angles of each.**Describe and construct common solids: right prisms, cylinders, cones, and spheres.** Kids should be able to calculate the surface areas and volumes of these solids using appropriate formulas.**Know the properties of parallel lines, perpendicular lines, bisectors, transversals, and angles.** Kids should be able to construct parallel lines, perpendicular lines, transversals, bisectors, and angles using a protractor, compass, and/or straight edge. They should know the properties of angles formed by the transversal of parallel lines and should recognize and define various types and features of angles, including congruent, vertical, complementary, supplementary, adjacent, corresponding, and alternate interior and exterior.**Know and understand the Pythagorean Theorem and use it to solve geometrical problems.** In a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.**Analyze effects of basic transformations on geometric shapes.** Kids should be able to identify translations, reflections, and rotations. They should also be able to determine how changes of scale affect measures of perimeter, area, and volume.

### Prealgebra

**Evaluate and solve algebraic equations and inequalities in one variable using addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.**

Try this: 2 (4x – 5) + x = 6 (x + 3)

Kids should be able to apply such concepts as the distributive property of multiplication and order of operations to algebraic equations.**Write and solve equations for word problems.****Graph simple functions on a coordinate plane and solve related problems.** Kids should be able to translate patterns and proportions into equations and graphs. For example, given a mathematical rule such as y = 2x, they should be able to create a table of values and represent the results as ordered pairs plotted on a coordinate grid. They should also be able to translate linear graphs into equations.

At this grade level, kids should understand the concepts of function and slope. They should be familiar with equations in the form y = ax, where is the slope of the graphed line; and y = ax + b, where is the slope of the line, and b the y-intercept.**Understand equality properties for equations.** Kids should know that equations are equivalent when the same quantity is added or subtracted from each side of the equation; or when each side of the equation is multiplied or divided by a quantity other than zero.

## Science

### Physical Science

**Survey atomic theory.** Topics to cover include the nature of atoms, molecules, and compounds, the history of chemistry from the ancient Greeks to Mendeleyev, models of atomic structure, and kinds of subatomic particles.**Understand major types of chemical bonds and reactions.** Topics to cover include the atomic basis of chemical bonds, ionic and covalent bonds, salts, oxidation and reduction reactions, acids and bases, and chemical equations.**Understand and use the periodic table of elements.** Kids should be familiar with the organization of the periodic table, should understand atomic number and atomic weight, and should know the definition of isotope.

A good supplement to studies of the periodic table might be a biography of Dmitry Mendeleyev.

### Life Science

**Compare and contrast structure and function of typical plant and animal cells.** Kids should be able to identify and describe major cell organelles, including nucleus, nuclear membrane, cytoplasm, cell membrane, vacuoles, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth), and mitochondria.**Understand the processes of cell division.** Kids should be able to define, compare, and contrast meiosis and mitosis and should know what a mutation is.**Survey the science of genetics.** Topics to cover include Gregor Mendel’s experiments; definitions of dominant and recessive traits, alleles, genotype, and phenotype; chromosomes and genes; DNA structure and function; common genetic disorders; and genetic engineering.

For example, kids should understand the molecular basis for genetic change. They should also know how DNA is replicated and transcribed, and should understand the one gene-one protein hypothesis. Good supplements to these studies might be biographies of scientists James Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin, and Barbara McClintock.**Survey the science of evolution.** Topics to cover include the definition of evolution; concepts of mutation, adaptation, natural selection, extinction, and speciation; Charles Darwin and The Origins of Species; and an overview of the evidence for evolution from the fields of geology, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and molecular biology.

### Earth/Space Science

**Be familiar with geological history of earth.** Topics to cover include concepts of uniformitarianism and catastrophism, the rock cycle, stratigraphy, fossil formation, radioactive dating, the age of the earth and the progression of life on earth, the means in which crustal plate movements have affected distribution of living things, and the Cretaceous extinction.

Kids should know that evidence from the geologic record and radioactive dating studies indicate that the earth is 4.6 billion years old and that life first appeared about 3 billion years ago. Good supplements to this study might include making geologic timelines, visiting a road cut or other geologic site to view rock layers, and reading biographies of Charles Lyell, Alfred Wegener, and Luis Alvarez.**Know the four major eras of geologic time and the characteristics of each.** The four major geologic eras are the Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic.

## 7.sınıf Konuları

## Mathematics

### Number Theory

**Read and write numbers through the trillions in both numerals and words.****Reinforce concepts of place value; recognize place value through the billions.****Round numbers to the nearest ten, hundred, thousand, ten thousand, hundred thousand, and million.****Reinforce concept of exponents introduced in previous grade.** Kids should know the perfect squares and square roots through 144; understand the terms squared, cubed, and the nth power; and be familiar with powers of 10.**Determine whether a given number is prime or composite.****Determine the greatest common factor (GCF) and least common multiple (LCM) of given numbers.****Explore a variety of alternative number systems, including ancient systems and alternate bases.**

### Ratio and Percent

**Determine and express simple ratios.** Kids should be able to use ratios and proportions to interpret map scales and scale drawings and to create accurate scale drawings of their own.**Solve problems involving ratios.** For example, kids should be able to use ratios to determine the lengths of the sides of similar triangles.**Define and model percents.** Kids should recognize the percent sign (%) and know that percent means “per hundred”. Use grids or manipulatives to demonstrate percents.**Translate among fractions, decimals, and percents.** Kids should be able to determine, for example, that ^{1}/_{10} = 0.1 = 10%, and should know that 1/4 = 25%; 1/2 = 50%; and 3/4 = 75%.**Solve problems using percents.** For example, kids should be able to determine percents of a given number, as in “What is 5% of 60?”

### Fractions and Decimals

**Identify the reciprocal of a given fraction.** Kids should also know that the product of a fraction and its reciprocal is 1.**Add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions and mixed numbers with like and unlike denominators.****Compare and order fractions and decimals on a number line.****Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals.** Kids should be able to add and subtract multidigit decimals and to multiply and divide decimals by 10, 100, and 1,000; by whole numbers; and by other decimals. They should know how to move the decimal point when multiplying or dividing by 10s.

### Operations

**Add, subtract, multiply, and divide multidigit numbers with and without a calculator.** Know methods for checking answers; be able to estimate answers.**Solve word problems with multiple steps and mathematical problems with more than one operation according to order of operations.**

### Measurement

**Compare and convert units of measurement within the English and metric measurement systems.** Within systems, kids should be able to compare and convert measures of length, area, volume, capacity, and weight/mass. They should, for example, be able to convert square feet to square inches, liters to milliliters, and ounces to pounds.**Define precision and accuracy in measurement.** Accuracy indicates how close a measurement is to its true value; precision refers to the reproducibility of the measured value (that is, if you take the measurement three times, how closely will the results agree?).

### Probability and Statistics

**Collect, organize, and interpret data using graphs, charts, plots, and tables.** Kids should create their own graphic representations of data and should solve problems that require the interpretation of graphs and tables. They should experiment with the use of computer spreadsheets or calculators with graphing capabilities to display and categorize data.**Determine range and measures of central tendency of a given set of numbers.** Kids should be able to calculate mean, median, and mode and should know the appropriate use of each.**Understand statistical sampling.** Kids should understand the use samples of making predictions and mathematical inferences.**Plot points on a coordinate grid using ordered pairs of positive and negative whole numbers.** Kids should be familiar with the four quadrants of a coordinate grid and be able to locate the origin, x-axis, and y-axis.**Conduct simple probability experiments and express the results in decimals and percents.**

### Geometry

**Recognize, measure, and construct angles.** Kids should be able to measure angles using a protractor; classify angles at acute, obtuse, or right; and construct angles of a given degree. They should also be able to classify angles as interior, exterior, complementary, or supplementary.**Calculate the perimeters and areas of plane figures.** Kids should know the formulas for calculating the areas of rectangles, squares, triangles, and parallelograms. They should also be able to determine the areas of irregular polygons by dividing them into regular figures.**Calculate the circumferences and areas of circles.** Kids should be able to construct circles of a given radius or diameter, using a compass, and should be able to calculate perimeter and area using the appropriate formulas.**Know triangle sum theorem.** Kids should know that the sum of the three angles of a triangle always equals 180 degrees and should be able to solve problems to find missing angles.**Identify and construct different kinds of triangles.** Kids should be able to identify right, isosceles, equilateral, and scalene triangles and construct examples of each using protractors and rulers.**Identify similar, congruent, and symmetrical figures.** Kids should be familiar with the results of transformational geometry: translations, reflections, and rotations.

### Prealgebra

**Recognize variables and solve simple equations containing variables.** Kids should be able to solve equations such as x + 5 = 11 and should be able to determine the value of an expression when given the replacement value of the variable: That is, they should be able to figure out the value of 8 � x, given that x = 2.5**Write and solve simple equations for word problems.**

## Science

### Physical Science

**Investigate the properties of heat energy.** Kids should be able to correlate heat to atomic/molecular activity. They should understand the three ways that heat energy can be transferred (via conduction, convection, or radiation), and should understand that heat transfer always proceeds from hotter to colder until equilibrium is reached.**Survey states of matter in terms of energy transfer.** Kids should be able to describe the three states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) in terms of their relative atomic/molecular activities. They should understand that phase changes occur when energy is added or subtracted from a system, and should be able to explain the molecular basis for expansion or contraction in response to changes in temperature.**Understand and explore the principle of distillation.** Kids should know that each substance has a characteristic boiling and freezing point, and be able to state the boiling and freezing points of water in both degrees Fahrenheit and Centigrade (Celsius). They should be able to define and explain the process of distillation (separation of liquid mixtures based on differences in boiling point).**Investigate the properties of light energy.** Kids should be able to define reflection, refraction, and absorption. They should understand how a prism works (play with one) and should be able to discuss and cite examples of how light energy can be transformed into heat, chemical, electrical, or mechanical energies.**Understand the law of the conservation of energy.** Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can be changed from one form to another.

### Life Science

**Explore concepts of energy transfer within ecosystems.** Kids should be able to trace the transfer or energy through ecosystems, from light energy (sunlight) to chemical energy (photosynthesis) to stored energy (plant sugars), and then from one organism to another through terrestrial and aquatic food webs.**Describe and discuss interactions of organisms and their environment within ecosystems.** Kids should be able to compare and contrast coexistence, cooperation, and competition. They should be able to define and cite examples of symbiosis, and should understand the impact of limiting factors on ecosystems and the results of external disruption of food webs.**Continue studies of human anatomy and physiology.** Kids should briefly review body systems covered in previous grades and should engage in a detailed study of the body’s immune system.

Topics to cover include the major components of the circulatory and lymphatic systems, antigens and antibodies, the structure and function of bacteria and viruses, bacterial diseases (including tetanus, typhoid, diphtheria, and tuberculosis), the discovery and mechanism of action of antibiotics, viral diseases (including the common cold, rabies, polio, and AIDS), epidemics, and the biological basis for vaccination.

Good supplements to this topic might include biographies of Edward Jenner, Louis Pasteur, and Alexander Fleming.

### Earth/Space Science

**Investigateand explore the concept of plate tectonics.** Topics to cover include Alfred Wegener and the theory of plate tectonics, the causes and effects of earthquakes, the Richter scale, geologic “hot spots” and the formation of volcanoes and island chains, and a survey of supportive evidence for plate tectonic theory.**Reinforce and expand upon studies of astronomy.** Topics to cover include Newton’s universal law of gravitation; kinds and classification of stars; the life history of stars, novas and supernovas, galaxies, pulsars and quasars; and astronomical instruments and the measurement of astronomical distances.

## 8.sınıf Konuları

## Mathematics

### Texts and Programs

**Understand the use of real numbers, including fractions, decimals, percents, ratios, and exponents.** Kids should be able to write numbers in scientific notation; identify prime and composite numbers; find the greatest common factor (GCF) and least common multiple (LCM) of two or more numbers; estimate square roots; and estimate sums, differences, products, and quotients of real numbers. They should also be able to interconvert among fractions, decimals, percents, and ratios and use fractions, decimals, percents, and ratios in real-world situations.**Know the basic properties of geometry.** Students should be familiar with the classification and measurement of angles and lines. They should be able to identify similar, congruent, and similar figures and calculate perimeter and area of regular and irregular plane figures and surface area and volume of solid figures, including rectangular solids, pyramids, prisms, cones, and cylinders. They should know the Pythagorean Theorem and be able to use it to solve problems, and they should be able to apply geometric principles to real-world situations.**Understand basic probability and statistics.** Kids should be able to compare and contrast varying graphic representations of the same data. They should be able to use measurements of central tendency, including mean, mode, and median, and apply these appropriately to problem-solving situations. They should be able to find the mathematical and experimental probability of simple and compound events, using hands-on experiments, random number generation, computer simulation, and other methods, and they should be able to display and interpret data using scatter plots.**Understand the introductory principles of algebra.** Eight graders should be able to simplify numerical expressions using order of operations, and to describe and identify commutative and associative properties of addition and subtraction and distributive properties of multiplication. They should be able to translate word problems into algebraic expressions and to evaluate and solve simple equations. They should be able to solve simple equations. They should be able to solve simple inequalities and graph the solutions, to use graphs and tables to represent relations and functions, and extend and create geometric and numerical patterns.

Given a rule or function that describes a linear equation, they should be able to make a table and create a graph; given an algebraic formula, they should be able to make substitutions and solve for one unknown.

## Science

### Physical Science

**Understand concepts of force and motion.** Kids should know the definitions of velocity and speed, be familiar with the formula s = d/t, and be able to interpret graphs plotting position versus time and speed versus time. They should understand concepts of force, including gravity, elasticity, and friction; the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on objects; and the relationship between force and mass.**Understand concepts of density and buoyancy.** For example, kids should be able to calculate density (given mass and volume); should understand the concept of buoyancy and know how to predict whether a given object will float or sink; and should understand Archimedes’s principle.**Understand concepts of work and power.** For example, kids should be able to define work and power, to solve problems using the formulas w = fd (work = force x distance) and p = w/t (power = work/time), and know common units of measure of work and power in both English and metric systems.**Reinforce and expand upon previous studies of energy.** For example, kids should know the definitions of kinetic and potential energy and be able to give examples of each. They should also understand the law of conservation of energy.**Reinforce and expand upon earlier studies of electricity and magnetism.** For example, kids should be able to compare current and static electricity. They should know the characteristics and functions of conductors, insulators, and an capacitors, should be able to define amperes, watts, and ohms, and should be able to solve problems using Ohm’s law (watts = amperes x volts). They should also understand the relationship between electricity and magnetism and be able to cite practical applications of this phenomenon.**Understand concepts of sound and light and properties of wave propagation.** Kids should understand the basic properties of waves, including transverse versus longitudinal waves, wavelength, frequency, and amplitude. They should know the properties of light and sound waves, be familiar with the composition of the electromagnetic spectrum, and understand the concepts of wave interference, resonance, and the Doppler Effect.

## 9.sınıf Konuları

## Mathematics

**Understand the use of algebraic language.** Students should be able to translate word problems and phrases into algebraic expressions and vice versa, and should be able to evaluate algebraic expressions and use algebraic formulas to solve problems.**Perform operations with real numbers.** Kids should be able to simplify numeral expressions using order of operations; determine the additive or multiplicative inverse of a number; and distinguish between rational and irrational numbers. They should also be able to determine the absolute value of expressions, to estimate square roots, to simplify radical expressions, and to perform numerical operations with square roots.**Solve equations and inequalities with one variable.** Kids should be able to solve simple equations involving fractions, absolute values, radicals, and exponents, and should be able to use equations and inequalities to solve problems.**Understand relations and functions.** Kids should be able to define and distinguish relation and function. They should be able to graph ordered pairs of numbers on coordinate plane, to graph a relation given an equation and a domain, and explore the graphs of functions using a graphing calculator or computer. They should be able to graph a linear equation, computing the x- and y- intercepts and determine the slope of nonvertical line given either the graph or the equation of the line. They should know the slope-intercept form of an equation of a line. They should be able to graph a linear inequality in two variables, and should be able to apply their knowledge of relations and functions to real-world problems and situations.**Perform operations with polynomials. ** First-year algebra students should be able to define and identify monomials, binomials, and polynomials. They should be able to add and subtract polynomials, multiply and divide monomials, binomials, and polynomials, factor the difference of two squares, and factor a simple quadratic trinomial.**Reinforce and review knowledge of proportions, ratios, and percents.** Kids should be able to simplify ratios involving algebraic expressions and use proportions, ratios, and percents in solving numerical and real-world problems.**Investigate, graph, and interpret non-linear equations.** Kids should be able to graph quadratic equations, to solve quadratic equations using the quadratic formula, and to use quadratic equations to solve problems. They should be able to recognize an exponential function and use graphing calculators or computers to investigate problems involving nonlinear equations.

## Science

### Earth/Space Science

**The formation of the sun, solar system, earth, and moon.** Topics include big bang cosmology and its supporting evidence; the compositions of sun, terrestrial planets, and gas planets; theories for the origin of the moon; the effects of asteroid impacts on earth, moon, and planets; planetary orbits and retrograde motion; Kepler’s laws; the relationship between earth’s tilt and orbital positon and seasons; moon phases; and lunar and solar eclipses.**The earth in the universe.** Topics to cover include composition of stars and galaxies, classification of stars, life histories of stars, origin of heavy elements in stars, Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams, astronomical instruments (including reflecting, refracting, radio, and X-ray telescopes), and the measurement of astronomical distances.**The structure of the earth.** Topics include the shape of the earth (including polar flattening and equatorial bulge), the circumference of the earth (including measurements from the experiments of Eratosthenes to modern times), the structure of the earth’s internal layers, the earth’s magnetic field and its measurement, and gravity and its measurement.**Plate tectonics.** Topics include the history and evidence for the theory of plate tectonics, characteristic tectonic process (including subduction, rifting, sea floor spreading, and continental collision), the relationship between volcanoes and earthquakes and plate boundaries, the structure of the ocean floor, mountain formation, earthquakes and their measurement, and classification and features of volcanoes.**Rocks and minerals.** Topics include a survey of the most common elements and most abundant minerals in the earth’s crust; common rock types: igneous (intrusive and extrusive), sedimentary (clastic and chemical), and metamorphic (foliated and unfoliated); economically valuable minerals; identification of rocks and minerals; key properties; basic crystal systems; the rock cycle; the fossil record and the geologic time scale; and fossil fuels.**The hydrologic (water) cycle.** Topics include clouds, precipitation, sources of freshwater on and under the earth, water capacity of soils and groundwater zones, the relationship between slope and run-off velocity, and the causes and effects of erosion; streams and rivers; flooding; and the source of minerals and salts in seawater.**Oceans.** Topics include a survey of oceans as complex interactive systems, topographic features of the ocean floor, the layered structure of ocean waters, waves and currents, the Coriolis Effect, the effects of ocean currents on climate, and the causes and effects of sea level and polar ice cap variations.**The atmosphere.** Topics include the structure of the atmospheric layers, measurements and studies of atmospheric changes over geologic time, the origin of atmospheric oxygen, the causes and effects of variations in carbon dioxide concentration, atmospheric regulation mechanisms, the ozone layer and its disruption, and the atmospheres of other planets.**Energy transfer patterns: dynamics of earth systems.** Topics to cover include the internal energy of the earth; solar energy and its effects and uses; causes and consequences of the greenhouse effect; differential heating and circulatory patterns of atmosphere and oceans (winds and currents); the effect of the earth’s rotation on wind and ocean currents; causes and effects of temperature inversions; climatic zones; effects of geologic and geographic features on climate; interaction of wind, ocean currents, and mountain ranges in formation of global weather patterns; the distinctions between weather and climate; weather prediction; and climatic changes over time.**Biogeochemical cycles.** Topics include the carbon cycle (photosynthesis and respiration); the global carbon cycle (including the transfer of carbon in the atmosphere, oceans, biomass, and fossil fuels); and the nitrogen cycle.**Correlate the earth sciences to state geographical features.** Students should relate the principles learned in earth science studies to familiar geographical features of their home states, explaining the causes and effects of mountain ranges, ocean currents, faults and seismic activity, and the like.

## 10.sınıf Konuları

## Mathematics

**Concepts of points, lines, and planes in one, two, and three dimensions.** Students should be able to identify points, lines, rays, segments, and planes, to find the coordinates of a point in a plane or in space, identify the midpoint of given segment on a line, and solve problems using lengths.**Composing valid proofs using a variety of reasoning strategies.** Students should understand the process of deductive reasoning and be able to state the converse, inverse, and contrapositive of a conditional statement. They should be able to construct mathematical proofs using flow diagrams, two-column formats, and paragraph formats, and should be able to solve problems and write proofs using definitions of adjacent, vertical, linear pair, complementary and supplementary angles, the angle addition postulate, and the definitions of angle bisectors, parallel lines, perpendicular lines, and perpendicular bisectors. They should understand the relationships that exist between the pairs of angles formed by parallel lines and a transversal, and they should be able to use slopes to determine whether or not a given pair of lines is parallel or perpendicular.**Properties of polygons and polyhedrons.** Students should be able to model and describe convex and regular polygons and use measures of interior and exterior angles and proportions to solve problems. They should understand the properties of similar and congruent polygons and should explore polygonal transformations, including tessellations, slides, rotations, and flips, in a coordinate plane. They should be able to model and describe regular and irregular polyhedrons; and identify similar and congruent polyhedrons.**Properties of quadrilaterals.** Students should know the properties of parallelograms, rectangles, rhombuses, squares, and trapezoids and should use these to solve problems and write proofs.**Properties of triangles.** Students should be able to classify triangles according to lengths of sides and angles, solve problems involving the interior and exterior angles of triangles, and use postulates and theorems to prove that two triangles are congruent. They should be able to apply theorems pertaining to isosceles triangles, altitudes, perpendicular bisectors, medians, segments joining midpoints of two sides of a triangle, and segments divided proportionally.

Students should also be familiar with the properties of right triangles, including the use of the Pythagorean Theorem, and should know the definitions of sine, cosine, and tangent and use these to solve problems.**Properties of circles and spheres.** Students should know the mathematical definition of a circle. They should understand the relationship between tangents and circles and the properties and theorems relating to arc, angles, of circles, chords, tangents, secants, and radii. They should know the relationship between the equation of a circle and its center and radius length; the relationships of congruent, similar, and concentric circles; and the properties of spheres.**Concepts of perimeter, area and volume.** Students should be able to determine the perimeters of geometric figures; the areas of triangles, parallelograms, trapezoids, and rectangles; and the circumferences and areas of circles. They should also be able to determine arc lengths and sector areas of circles and calculate the surface areas and volumes of right prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones, and spheres.

## Science

**Structure and function of the cell.** Topics to cover include basic cell theory; the structure and function of the cell membrane; enzymes and their functions; prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells, and viruses; the concept of the “Central Dogma” of molecular biology: information flow from DNA to RNA to protein; cellular organelles and the process of protein synthesis; the structure and function of chloroplasts and mitochondria; and the process of photosynthesis and respiration.**Principles of inheritance: Mendelian genetics.** Topics include the historical background of genetics and inheritance; the studies of Gregor Mendel; basic genetic terminology; the distinction between genotype and phenotype; autosomal and X-linked characteristics; and methods for calculating probabilities of inheritance from generation to generation.**Principles of inheritance: cellular and molecular genetics.** Topics include the processes of mitosis and meiosis; chromosomes and genes; crossing over and nondisjunction; recombination frequencies and genetic maps; DNA structure and genetic coding; the processes of transcription, translation, and protein synthesis; and genetic engineering.**The theory of evolution.** Topics include the historical background of theory, including the work of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace; biological and geological evidence for the theory; mutation and natural selection; Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; and evolution and diversity.**Classification of living things.** Topics include the Linnaean system of nomenclature and a survey of the five kingdoms of living things and their characteristics.**Human anatomy and physiology.** Topics include the structure and functions of the basic body systems and a survey of the immune system.**Ecology.** Topics include biodiversity, the major components of a biological community, food chains and food webs, the principles of population growth, a survey of the major biomes of the world, and evaluation of the impact of human beings on the environment.

## 11.sınıf Konuları

## Mathematics

**Model real-world phenomena using techniques of data analysis.** Students should recognize mathematical models of linear, quadric, exponential, trigonometric, and logarithmic functions. They should be familiar with the use of scatter plots to determine if a given model is appropriate, and with the use of the linear least squares method.**Create and analyze graphs of functions.** Students should be able to sketch graphs of the basic functions, including constant, linear, quadratic, cubic, square root, absolute value, reciprocal, trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions. They should be able to find the domain and estimate the range of a function; identify continuous and discontinuous functions; and graph transformations and combinations of transformations for all basic functions. They should also be able to compose two functions and find the domain of the composition; analyze a function by decomposing it into simpler functions; and find the inverse of a function and the domain of inverse.**Graph polynomial and rational functions.** Students should be able to find the factors of polynomials algebraically or by using a graphing calculator. They should be able to find the zeros, vertical asymptotes, and horizontal asymptotes of a rational function and sketch the graph of a rational function.**Graph, transform, and solve problems with exponential and logarithmic functions.****Model nonlinear data from real-world phenomena using techniques of data analysis.****Graph and transform trigonometric functions; solve trigonometric equations and inequalities.** Students should be able to recognize and graph each of the six trigonometric functions and their transformations and solve trigonometric equations and inequalities algebraically and with graphing calculator. They should be able to find values of inverse trigonometric functions, evaluate and graph compositions of trigonometric functions and their inverses, and use the laws of sines and cosines to solve problems with triangles and vectors. They should be able to translate degrees to radians and vice versa, convert complex numbers from rectangular to polar form and vice versa, and use DeMoivre’s Theorem to find root and powers of complex numbers.**Use discrete mathematics concepts to solve problems.** Students should be able to follow an algorithm; use operations with matrices and their inverses to solve problems; interpret data in terms of mean, standard deviation, and place on the normal distribution curve; and understand concepts of sequences and series.

## Science

**Principles of chemical investigation.** Topics include laboratory techniques and safety procedures; scientific measurement; and concepts of accuracy, precision, and significant figures.**Atomic structure and the periodic table.** Topics include atomic structure (historical and quantum models) and subatomic particles; the organization and components of the periodic table; concepts of atomic mass, weight, and number; isotopes; and electron configurations and oxidation numbers.**Chemical formulas and equations.** Topics include chemical formulas (molecular, structural, empirical, and Lewis diagrams); balancing chemical equations; ionic and covalent bonds; basic types of reactions; physical and chemical equilibria; and reaction rates and kinetics.**Molar relationships.** Topics include Avogadro’s principle, stoichiometric relationships, the gas laws, and acid/base theory.**Kinetic theory.** Topics include pressure, temperature, and volume relationships; phase changes; the heats of fusion and vaporization; specific heat capacity; and the properties of solutions.**Other areas of chemistry.** Topics include organic and biochemistry, electrochemistry, nuclear chemistry, and environmental chemistry.

## 12.sınıf Konuları

## Mathematics

**Understand and use elementary functions: algebraic, trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic.** For example, students should be able to define a function and relate functions to real-world problems and situations. They should be able to find the domain and range of a function with and without a graphing calculator and to determine the sum, product, and quotient of two functions. They should be able to determine the domain of a composition of functions and the absolute value, inverse, periodicity and amplitude, symmetry, asymptotes, and zeros of function. They should be able to find the limits of functions and recognize functions that have nonexistent limits.**Understand and use the definition of continuity.****Understand and use concepts of differential calculus.** For example, students should be able to find the derivatives of elementary and composite functions, of implicitly defined functions, and of the inverse of a function. They should know and apply the mean value theorem, the relation between differentiability and continuity, and L’Hopital’s rule.**Understand and apply concepts of derivative.** Students should be able to find the slope of a curve, the tangent line to a curve, and the normal line to a curve. They should be able to use Newton’s method to approximate the zeros of a function and find critical points, maximum and minimum points, and points of inflection of a function. They should be able to interpret graphs of the derivative to obtain information about a function and to use derivative concepts to solve problems involving velocity and acceleration.**Understand and apply concepts of integral calculus.** Students should be able to find antiderivatives and solve simple first-order differentiable equations. They should be able to use basic integration formulas, approximate the area under a curve, understand and apply properties of definite integrals, and use the fundamental theorem.

## Science

**Force and motion.** Topics include Newton’s first, second and third laws, the universal law of gravitation, concepts of circular motion, vectors, and trajectories.**Conservation of momentum and energy.** Topics include the distinctions between kinetic and potential energy, a survey of the kinds of energy (mechanical, radiant, chemical, etc.), elastic and inelastic collisions, and specific heat.**Thermodynamics.** Topics include the laws of thermodynamics, properties of energy transfers, the concept of entropy, and the relationships among head flow, work, and efficiency.**Oscillations and waves.** Topics include the distinction between transverse and longitudinal waves; concepts of wavelength, frequency, and speed; an overview of the electromagnetic spectrum; basic properties of waves (including interference, diffraction, refraction, polarization, and the Doppler Effect); and the wave and photon models of light.**Electricity and magnetism.** Topics include an overview of the basic features and concepts of electricity and magnetism; Ohm’s law and Coulomb’s law, power concepts; properties of resistors, capacitors, and transistors; the relationship between electric current and magnetic field; and the properties of plasmas.**Nuclear physics.** Topics include atomic structure, radioactivity and half-life, ionization, nuclear fission and fusion, and basic concepts of quantum physics.